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The tricky capital 'C'

For those who don't know, capitalization in law is extremely important!! It sometimes is the ONLY way to distinguish between two completely different things.

see Cal Rev Tax Code 6017 vs 60017

see USC Title 26 "State" vs state

Well, the writers of the Constitution were VERY careful to keep capitalization uniform throughout all of the Constitution and the Amendments...that is until the 14th Amendment which for the first time used a lower case "c" in "citizen of the United States".

Since the original Constitution wasnt repealed, does it mean that very few Americans are legally able to be in Congress or President??? Does it mean that "citizens" arent afforded "human rights" and Constitutional Protection and instead get "civil rights" and government protection??


    civil rights

    –plural noun ( often initial capital letters )
    rights to personal liberty established by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and certain Congressional acts, esp. as applied to an individual or a minority group.
    the rights to full legal, social, and economic equality extended to blacks.


    human right

    (law) any basic right or freedom to which all human beings are entitled and in whose exercise a government may not interfere (including rights to life and liberty as well as freedom of thought and
    expression and equality before the law)


see the requirements.

The Constitution of September 17, 1787 required of the first
Members of the House of Representatives that: "No Person shall be
a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty
five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States,
and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in
which he shall be chosen."

The Constitution of September 17, 1787 required this of Senators:
"No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United
and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that
State for which he shall be chosen."

The Constitution of September 17, 1787 required this of persons
who would fill the Office of President: "No Person except a natural
born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of
President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who
shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been
fourteen Years a Resident within the United States."

So my question for you is:
why did they use a lower case "c" in the 14th Amendment, if it wasnt to create a "new class" of citizen (one that isnt in the Constitution nor afforded the protection therein) as the Supremem court said?

"The first clause of the fourteenth amendment made negroes citizens of the United States, and citizens of the State in which they reside, and thereby created two classes of citizens, one of the United States and the other of the state."
[Cory et al. v. Carter, 48 Ind. 327]


"We might say that such regulations were unjust, tyrannical, unfit for the regulation of an intelligent state; but, if rights of a citizen are thereby violated, they are of that fundamental class, derived from his position as a citizen of the state, and not those limited rights belonging to him as a citizen of the United States; and such was the decision in Corfield v. Coryell."
[The United States v. Susan B. Anthony (11 2nd. Jud. Cir.] 200, 1873)

"[W]e find nothing…which requires that a citizen of a state must also be a citizen of the United States, if no question of federal rights or jurisdiction is involved."
[Crosse v. Bd. of Supvrs of Elections, 221 A.2d. 431 (1966) ]

"United States citizenship does not entitle citizens to rights and privileges of state citizenship."
[K. Tashiro v. Jordan, 201 Cal. 236, 256 P. 545 (1927), 48 Supreme Court. 527.]

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"human rights" have a specific connotation that is

easily mistaken.

The definition you provide here is more along the lines of "natural rights" and that term would have been the one used by the Framers and Founders.

The modern day concept of "human rights" is being used to bring about global government that is communist in nature rather than individualist, and includes many things that are more properly termed "entitlements" rather than "rights." (which by nature are authorities to take a certain action, not that some material good or service is "owed" to someone)

today's news

Anti-Government Sovereign Citizens Taking Foreclosed Homes Using Phony Deeds, Authorities Say
Georgia Officials, FBI Are Pursuing Anti-Government Citizens Squatting in Bank-Owned Homes

Aug. 23, 2010—


redemption movement

I know of people who do this

I know of people who do this (or try). Personally, I dont want anything but to be left alone! Im not looking for fortunes, credit, benefits, privileges, etc...In fact I refuse those things...I simply want to reclaim my birthright Citizenship!


there is a lot here to think about, thanks.

"We can see with our eyes, hear with our ears and feel with our touch, but we understand with our hearts."


[and I hope you are not mad at me....]

Wash inititive 648


WSS Article 1.16.136 "Person" defined. The term "person" may be construed to include the United States, this state, or any state or territory, or any public or private corporation, as well as any corporation, statutory trust, individual or a man or woman other than a citizen domiciled within one of the several states. [as created by the "Civil Rights Act", of April 9, 1866; and the Fourteenth Amendment; 94 U.S. 315;]

WSS Article 1.16.250 "U.S. Citizen " defined. The term U. S. Citizen means one that has the status of being a citizen of a federal territory such as the District of Columbia, or of one of a federal territory's subdistricts or federal enclaves. A person that is a franchise of the "United States" corporation. The supreme courts have ruled that "the United states government is a foreign corporation with respect to a state" [20 C.J.S. 1786; 36 N.E. 505; 141 N.Y. 479; 16 S.Ct. 1073; 163 U.S. 625;]. A person who received their citizenship through the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. A person possessing a social security or federal I.D. number, who obtained or maintained the same voluntarily and knowingly, "with sufficient awareness of the relevant circumstances and consequences", regarding their citizenship and Constitutionally protected rights. U.S. Citizenship is a privilege as defined in this section. U.S. Citizens were created by the "Civil Rights Act", of April 9, 1866, and the Fourteenth Amendment. [Jones v. Temmer, 829 F.Supp. at 1226, (August 11, 1993); K. Tashiro et al. v. Jordan Secretary of State, (S. F. 12346.) 256 P., Cal. 545; May 20, 1927, Cook v. Tait; (1924), 265 U.S. 47; 44 Sup. Ct. 444; 92 U.S. 542, 549, 829 F.Supp. at 1226; 3A Am Jur 1420; 397 U.S. at 748]

Privileges and immunities clause of Fourteenth Amendment protects only those rights peculiar to being citizen of the federal government; it does not protect those rights which relate to state citizenship." Jones v. Temmer (1994), 829 F. Supp. 1226, U.S.C.A. Const.Amend. 14 section 1

"Both before and after the Fourteenth Amendment to the federal Constitution, it has not been necessary for a person to be a citizen of the United States in order to be a citizen of his state." Crosse v. Board of Supervisors of Elections (1966) 221 A.2d 431 p.433, citing U.S. v. Cruikshank (1875), 92 U.S. 542, 549, 23 L.Ed. 588 (1875), Slaughter-House Cases (1872), 83 U.S. 36; 1872 U.S. LEXIS 1139; 21 L. Ed. 394; 16 Wall. 36

"Rights under 42 USCS sect.1983 are for citizens of United States and not of state." Wadleigh v. Newhall (1905 CC Cal) 136 F 941