23 votes

The biographies of Entrepreneurs, Inventors, Scientists & Engineers etc.; includes books on History, Economics & How to Study

"An entrepreneur is the creative force in economics. The entrepreneur is the person who comes and looks at a desert, or a jungle, or a wilderness, and sees a garden, sees an opportunity to create new value."

"The entrepreneurs we remember are the great inventors, since we can easily see how their inventions produce new wealth; but most entrepreneurs create new wealth in another, less tangible way... by orchestrating the creativity of others."
~ Call of the Entrepreneur


http://youtu.be/ROFJKd9hkkA

The purpose of this post is to provide a reference for those who wish to learn about the lives of men and women who helped make economic progress possible. Here you will find movies and books about the lives of people who have excelled in various lines of endeavor. You will also find videos on economics and related historical events, as well as books on learning and thinking. The two "Related Posts" categories at the end of the table of contents may be of interest to many viewers.

Most of the books link to Archive.org and are available to read in multiple formats. The "Read Online" or "DjVu" links at Archive.org may be the easiest to read.

(Caveat: Some biographies may selectively portray the positive aspects of an individual's life and omit the negative, but they may still be useful.)

~ Stillwater

"At this point I can imagine it not unlikely that some young man may be inclined to ask me whether I should advise him, with the view of strengthening his reasoning powers, to enter upon a formal study of logic and metaphysics. To this I answer, By all means, if you have first, in a natural way, as opposed to mere scholastic discipline, acquired the general habit of thinking and reasoning. A man has learned to walk first by having legs, and then by using them. After that he may go to a drill-sergeant and learn to march, and to perform various tactical evolutions, which no experience of mere untrained locomotion can produce. So exactly it is with the art of thinking. Have your thinking first, and plenty to think about, and then ask the logician to teach you to scrutinise with a nice eye the process by which you have arrived at your conclusions. In such fashion there is no doubt that the study of logic may be highly beneficial. But as this science, like mathematics, has no real contents, and merely sets forth in order the universal forms under which all thinking is exercised, it must always be a very barren affair to attempt obtaining from pure logic any rich growth of thought that will bear ripe fruit in the great garden of life. One may as well expect to make a great patriot —a Bruce or a Wallace—of a fencing master, as to make a great thinker out of a mere logician. So it is in truth with all formal studies. Grammar and rhetoric are equally barren, and bear fruit only when dealing with materials given by life and experience. A meagre soul can never be made fat, nor a narrow soul large, by studying rules of thinking. An intense vitality, a wide sympathy, a keen observation, a various experience, is worth all the logic of the schools; and yet the logic is not useless; it has a regulative, not a creative virtue; it is useful to thinking as the study of anatomy is useful to painting; it gives you a more firm hold of the jointing and articulation of your framework; but it can no more produce true knowledge than anatomy can produce beautiful painting. It performs excellent service in the exposure of error and the unveiling of sophistry; but to proceed far in the discovery of important truth, it must borrow its moving power from fountains of living water, which flow not in the schools, and its materials from the facts of the breathing universe, with which no museum is furnished."
~ John Stuart Blackie, "On Self-Culture: Intellectual, Physical & Moral" (1874)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS - Sections
(Click "Back" button on browser to return to Table)

"Empty your purse into your mind and your mind will fill your purse with coins."
~ Benjamin Franklin

Profiles & Biographies - Books

"The Golden Rule finds no limit of application in business."
~ James Cash Penney

  • Self-Help: With Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverance - (1859) - Samuel Smiles
    "The object of the book briefly is, to re-inculcate these old-fashioned but wholesome lessons-which perhaps cannot be too often urged, that youth must work in order to enjoy,-that nothing creditable can be accomplished without application and diligence,-that the student must not be daunted by difficulties, but conquer them by patience and perseverance,-and that, above all, he must seek elevation of character, without which capacity is worthless and worldly success is naught."
  • Thrift - (1876) - Samuel Smiles (Intended as a sequel to "Self-help")
  • How They Succeeded: Life Stories of Successful Men and Women Told by Themselves - (1903) - Orison Swett Marden
    Profiled: Marshall Field, Alexander G. Bell, Helen Gould, Philip D. Armour, Mary E. Proctor, Jacob Gould Schurman, John Wanamaker, F. Wellington Ruckstuhl, Darius Ogden Mills, Madame Lillian Nordica, William Dean Howells, John D. Rockefeller, Julia Ward Howe, Thomas A. Edison, General Lew Wallace, Andrew Carnegie, Hereshoff the Yacht Builder, Amelia E. Barr, Theodore Thomas, John Burroughs, Herbert H. Vreeland, James Whitcomb Riley

Learning & Mental Development - Books on thinking, memory, logic, etc.

"Who reads
Incessantly, and to his reading brings not
A spirit and judgment equal or superior
Uncertain and unsettled still remains,
Deep versed in books, and shallow in himself."

~ John Milton

"Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider." ~ Sir Francis Bacon

"The first essential is that the student should have the proper mental attitude. That attitude should not be one of subservience, of blind believing, but should be one of mental courage and determination. His object is to understand the subject, not simply to read a book. If the book is a proper one for him to read, that is to say, if he has the proper preparation, and requisite mental power, then he is capable of mastering it. He is to master the book, the book is not to master him. He is to learn what the writer of the book thinks in matters of opinion, but he is never to accept such views blindly, and is to believe them only when he sees them to be true... Mental courage, therefore, is essential for a proper method of study, without which the student will become little more than a parrot." ~ George Fillmore Swain, "How to Study"

Small Business Books
The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and What to Do About It - Michael E. Gerber
"Michael Gerber dispels the myths surrounding starting your own business and shows how commonplace assumptions can get in the way of running a business. He walks you through the steps in the life of a business from entrepreneurial infancy, through adolescent growing pains, to the mature entrepreneurial perspective, the guiding light of all businesses that succeed. He then shows how to apply the lessons of franchising to any business whether or not it is a franchise. Finally, Gerber draws the vital, often overlooked distinction between working on your business and working in your business. After you have read The E-Myth Revisited, you will truly be able to grow your business in a predictable and productive way."

Movies | Television | Videos

  • John Taylor Gatto
    • The Ultimate History Lesson: A Weekend with John Taylor Gatto
    • 14 Principles of an Elite Boarding School Curriculum
  • Longitude - (TV biographical drama: 2000) John Harrison, carpenter, clockmaker, inventor of the marine chronometer
  • The Machine That Made Us - (BBC documentary: 2005) Johann Gutenberg - Gutenberg Press

Related Posts on Technology & Innovation

Related Posts on Learning & Starting a Business

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PROFILES & BIOGRAPHIES
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Self-Help: With Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverance - By Samuel Smiles
Note: Originally titled, "Self-Help: With Illustrations of Character and Conduct." The change was made for the second edition (1866).

"The object of the book briefly is, to re-inculcate these old-fashioned but wholesome lessons-which perhaps cannot be too often urged, that youth must work in order to enjoy,-that nothing creditable can be accomplished without application and diligence,-that the student must not be daunted by difficulties, but conquer them by patience and perseverance,-and that, above all, he must seek elevation of character, without which capacity is worthless and worldly success is naught. If the author has not succeeded in illustrating these lessons, he can only say that he has failed in his object." (Source)

"Heaven helps those who help themselves" is a well-tried maxim, embodying in a small compass the results of vast human experience. The spirit of self-help is the root of all genuine growth in the individual; and, exhibited in the lives of many, it constitutes the true source of national vigour and strength. Help from without is often enfeebling in its effects, but help from within invariably invigorates. Whatever is done for men or classes, to a certain extent takes away the stimulus and necessity of doing for themselves; and where men are subjected to over-guidance and over-government, the inevitable tendency is to render them comparatively helpless."
~ Samuel Smiles, "Self-Help"

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Source)
I. Self-Help,—National and Individual.
II. Leaders of Industry,—Inventors and Producers.
III. Application and Perseverance.
IV. Helps and Opportunities—Scientific Pursuits.
V. Workers in Art.
VI. Industry and the English Peerage.
VII. Energy and Courage.
VIII. Business Qualities.
IX. Money,—Use and Abuse.
X. Self-Culture.
XI. Facilities and Difficulties.
XII. Example,—Models.
XIII. Character.—The True Gentleman.

Link 1 - Read online (1863) (Library of Economics and Liberty)
Link 2 - Read online (1866) (Archive.org)
Link 3 - Read online (1905)(Archive.org)
Link 4 - Read online (1908) (Archive.org)(Quality DjVu Doc. w/ white background)

Thrift - By Samuel Smiles (Intended as a sequel to "Self-help")
Link - Read online (1876)(Archive.org)

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How They Succeeded: Life Stories of Successful Men and Women Told by Themselves - By Orison Swett Marden
“The Gilded Age produced not only some of the richest men and women of all time; its freedom and opportunities built a nation of people of superlative character. This fantastic book from 1901 provides an in-depth look at the lives and choices of some of the most famous among them. The idea is to document the traits that make for great entrepreneurs.

Here it is presented with beautiful personal profiles. From the interviews and reporting, certain common features of success emerge: the need for a work ethic, the necessity of sacrifice, the role of being alert, the centrality of passion to success, the urge to serve others, the desire to break the mold, the willingness to adapt to change, profound attentiveness to real conditions, and also the biographical details of how a person goes from rags to riches.”

Profiled: Marshall Field, Alexander G. Bell, Helen Gould, Philip D. Armour, Mary E. Proctor, Jacob Gould Schurman, John Wanamaker, F. Wellington Ruckstuhl, Darius Ogden Mills, Madame Lillian Nordica, William Dean Howells, John D. Rockefeller, Julia Ward Howe, Thomas A. Edison, General Lew Wallace, Andrew Carnegie, Hereshoff the Yacht Builder, Amelia E. Barr, Theodore Thomas, John Burroughs, Herbert H. Vreeland, James Whitcomb Riley

Link - Read online (Mises.org)

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The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin - By Benjamin Franklin
"Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705][Note 1][Note 2] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'.[1] He facilitated many civic organizations, including a fire department and a university.

Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity; as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation.[2] Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment." (Wikipedia)

Link - Read online (Archive.org)

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Highways of Progress - By James J. Hill (1910)
Note: See also video section for James J. Hill.
"Most business historians have assumed that the transcontinental railroads would never have been built without government subsidies. The free market would have failed to provide the adequate capital, or so the theory asserts. The evidence for this theory is that the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads, which were completed in the years after the War Between the States, received per-mile subsidies from the federal government in the form of low-interest loans as well as massive land grants. But there need not be cause and effect here: the subsidies were not needed to cause the transcontinental railroads to be built. We know this because, just as many roads and canals were privately financed in the early nineteenth century, a market entrepreneur built his own transcontinental railroad. James J. Hill built the Great Northern Railroad "without any government aid, even the right of way, through hundreds of miles of public lands, being paid for in cash..." (Mises.org: The Truth About the "Robber Barons")

Link - Read online (Archive.org)

James J Hill & the Opening of the Northwest - By Albro Martin (1991)(Amazon.com)

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My Life and Work - By Henry Ford (1922)
"It is not an exaggeration to say that Henry Ford changed the face of capitalism and reinvented industry with the development of the Model T automobile. Alas, much ruckus has been made over the Model T, however, mainstream history has put all of its focus on the Model T itself, along with the creation of the assembly line, and it forgets that what is behind the Model T are some of the most brilliant and useful innovations in the history of industrial mankind ... All over the world, when industrialists needed to learn how to innovate, design, build, and maintain their plants, where did they come? To Detroit, of course, to tour Ford’s factories and to get inspiration, conversation, and ideas from the man himself." (Mises.org: The Forgotten Brilliance of Henry Ford)

Link 1 - Read online (Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (Archive.org)
Link 3 - Read online (Archive.org)

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Mover Of Men & Mountains - By R. G. LeTourneau
"Robert Gilmour LeTourneau (November 30, 1888–June 1, 1969), born in Richford, Vermont, was a prolific inventor of earthmoving machinery. His machines represented nearly 70 percent of the earthmoving equipment and Engineering vehicles used during World War II, and he was responsible for nearly 300 patents. With the help of his wife, the late Evelyn Peterson (1900-1987), he founded what became a private, Christian university, LeTourneau University, in Longview, Texas, and was known as a devoted Christian and generous philanthropist to Christian causes, including to a camp and conference grounds that carry his name, "LeTourneau Christian Center."[1] He was sometimes called, "God's businessman." (Wikipedia)

Link - Amazon.com

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Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story - By Dr. Benjamin Carson
"In 1987, Dr. Benjamin Carson gained worldwide recognition for his part in the first successful separation of Siamese twins joined at the back of the head. Carson pioneered again in a rare procedure known as a hemispherectomy, giving children without hope a second chance at life through a daring operation in which he literally removes one half of their brain. Such breakthroughs aren't unusual for Ben Carson. He's been beating the odds since he was a child. Raised in inner-city Detroit by a mother with a third grade education, Ben lacked motivation. He had terrible grades. And a pathological temper threatened to put him in jail. But Sonya Carson convinced her son he could make something of his life, even though everything around him said otherwise. Trust in God, a relentless belief in his own capabilities, and sheer determination catapulted Ben from failing grades to the directorship of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Gifted Hands takes you into the operating room to witness surgeries that made headlines around the world---and into the private mind of a compassionate, God-fearing physician who lives to help others."

Link - Amazon.com

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My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla By Nikola Tesla
Note: See also video section for Nikola Tesla.
"Nikola Tesla was born in Croatia (then part of Austria-Hungary) on July 9, 1856, and died January 7, 1943. He was an electrical engineer who invented the AC (alternating current) induction motor, which made the universal transmission and distribution of electricity possible. Tesla began his studies in physics and mathematics at Graz Polytechnic, and then took philosophy at the University of Prague. He worked as an electrical engineer in Budapest, Hungary, and subsequently in France and Germany. In 1888 his discovery that a magnetic field could be made to rotate if two coils at right angles are supplied with AC current 90Á cut of phase made possible the invention of the AC induction motor. The major advantage of this motor being its brush less operation, which many at the time believed impossible.

Tesla moved to the United States in 1884, where he worked for Thomas Edison who quickly became a rival, Edison being and advocate of the inferior DC power transmission system. During this time, Tesla was commissioned with the design of the AC generators at Niagara Falls. George Westinghouse purchased the patents to his induction motor and made it the basis of the Westinghouse power system which still underlies the modern electrical power industry today. He also did notable research on high-voltage electricity and wireless communication; at one point creating and earthquake which shook the ground for several miles around his New York laboratory. He also devised a system which anticipated worldwide wireless communications, fax machines, radio-guided missiles and aircraft.

Nikola Tesla is the true unsung prophet of the electronic age; without whom our radio, auto ignition, telephone, alternating current power generation and transmission, radio and television would all have been impossible. Yet his life and times have vanished largely from public access. This autobiography is released to remedy this situation."

Excerpts:

"Although I must trace to my mother's influence whatever inventiveness I possess, the training he gave me must have been helpful. It comprised all sorts of exercises - as, guessing one another's thoughts, discovering the defects of some form of expression, repeating long sentences or performing mental calculations.

...To free myself of these tormenting appearances, I tried to concentrate my mind on something else I had seen, and in this way I would often obtain temporary relief; but in order to get it I had to conjure continuously new images. It was not long before I found that I had exhausted all of those at my command; my 'reel' had run out as it were, because I had seen little of the world -- only objects in my home and the immediate surroundings. As I performed these mental operations for the second or third time, in order to chase the appearances from my vision, the remedy gradually lost all its force. Then I instinctively commenced to make excursions beyond the limits of the small world of which I had knowledge, and I saw new scenes. These were at first very blurred and indistinct, and would flit away when I tried to concentrate my attention upon them. They gained in strength and distinctness and finally assumed the concreteness of real things. I soon discovered that my best comfort was attained if I simply went on in my vision further and further, getting new impressions all the time, and so I began to travel; of course, in my mind. Every night, (and sometimes during the day), when alone, I would start on my journeys -- see new places, cities and countries; live there, meet people and make friendships and acquaintances and, however unbelievable, it is a fact that they were just as dear to me as those in actual life, and not a bit less intense in their manifestations. This I did constantly until I was about seventeen, when my thoughts turned seriously to invention. Then I observed to my delight that i could visualize with the greatest facility. I needed no models, drawings or experiments. I could picture them all as real in my mind. Thus I have been led unconsciously to evolve what I consider a new method of materializing inventive concepts and ideas, which is radially opposite to the purely experimental and is in my opinion ever so much more expeditious and efficient.

...The moment one constructs a device to carry into practice a crude idea, he finds himself unavoidably engrossed with the details of the apparatus. As he goes on improving and reconstructing, his force of concentration diminishes and he loses sight of the great underlying principle. Results may be obtained, but always at the sacrifice of quality. My method is different. I do not rush into actual work. When I get an idea, I start at once building it up in my imagination. I change the construction, make improvements and operate the device in my mind. It is absolutely immaterial to me whether I run my turbine in thought or test it in my shop. I even note if it is out of balance. There is no difference whatever; the results are the same. In this way I am able to rapidly develop and perfect a conception without touching anything. When I have gone so far as to embody in the invention every possible improvement I can think of and see no fault anywhere, I put into concrete form this final product of my brain. Invariably my device works as I conceived that it should, and the experiment comes out exactly as I planned it. In twenty years there has not been a single exception. Why should it be otherwise? Engineering, electrical and mechanical, is positive in results. There is scarcely a subject that cannot be examined beforehand, from the available theoretical and practical data. The carrying out into practice of a crude idea as is being generally done, is, I hold, nothing but a waste of energy, money, and time.

My early affliction had however, another compensation. The incessant mental exertion developed my powers of observation and enabled me to discover a truth of great importance. I had noted that the appearance of images was always preceded by actual vision of scenes under peculiar and generally very exceptional conditions, and I was impelled on each occasion to locate the original impulse. After a while this effort grew to be almost automatic and I gained great facility in connecting cause and effect."

Link 1 - Read online
Link 2 - "Tesla's autobiography, originally printed as a series of six magazine articles in The Electrical Experimenter magazine. Complete with all original plus 6 additional illustrations." (Amazon.com)

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The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie - By Andrew Carnegie (1920)
Link 1 - Read online (Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (Archive.org)

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OTHER BOOKS (Temporary workspace)

Character - By Samuel Smiles
Link 1 - Read online (1889)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (Alternate link)(1907)(Archive.org)

Men of Invention and Industry - By Samuel Smiles
Link 1 - Read online (1884)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1884)(Alternate link)(Archive.org)

Lives of the engineers: An account of their principal works: A history of inland communication in Britain- By Samuel Smiles

Lives of the engineers: An account of their principal works: A history of inland communication in Britain (George and Robert Stephenson)(Volume 4) - (MP3 audio: 2010)(Archive.org)

Volume 1 - Read online (1861)(Archive.org)

Volume 2 - Read online (1861)(Archive.org)

Volume 3 - Read online (1862)(Archive.org)

Volume 4: The Locomotive: George and Robert Stephenson - Read online (New edition 1904)(Archive.org)

Volume 5: Lives of Boulton & Watt - Read online (1865)(Archive.org)

New Edition (1874) - Incomplete list of links

Volume 1: Early Engineering: Vermuyden, Myddelton, Perry, James Brindley/a>

Volume 3: History of Roads: Metcalfe, Telford

Volume 5: The Locomotive; George and Robert Stephenson

Civil Engineer: The Life of Thomas Telford - "...enlarged edition of 'Life of Telford,' originally published in 'Lives of Engineers'..."

Industrial biography: Iron-workers and Tool-makers - By Samuel Smiles
Link - Read online (1864)(Archive.org)

Men of Invention and Industry - By Samuel Smiles
Men of Invention and Industry - Read online (1884)(Archive.org)
Link - Read online (1885)(Archive.org)

The Life of George Stephenson: Railway Engineer - By Samuel Smiles
Link - Read online (1858)(Archive.org)

George Moore: merchant and philanthropist - By Samuel Smiles
Link - Read online (1978)(Archive.org)

James Nasmyth: engineer, an autobiography - By James Nasmyth, Samuel Smiles
Link - Read online (1883)(Archive.org)

Josiah Wedgwood, F.R.S.: His personal history - By Samuel Smiles
Link - Read online (1894)(Archive.org)

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LEARNING & MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
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How To Study - By George Fillmore Swain (1917)
Biographical Memoir of George Fillmore Swain - By William Hovgaard (pdf)

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Source)

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

I. THE PROPER MENTAL ATTITUDE
(a) Distinction between reading and understanding
(b) Distinction between facts, opinions, and logical conclusions
(c) Importance of the questioning habit
(d) Inquiring into methods of ascertaining facts
(e) Studying evidence of reliability of a writer
(f) Importance of caution
(g) Importance of the scientific attitude of mind
(h) Intellectual modesty
(i) Wisdom rather than knowledge the aim

II. STUDYING UNDERSTANDINGLY
(a) Importance of definite ideas
(1) Use of the dictionary
(2) Practice in definition
(3) Importance of the study of logic
(b) Stating a thing in different ways
(c) Stating a thing negatively as well as positively
(d) Observation of necessary qualifying words or phrases
(e) Reflection, illustration, and application
(f) Keeping the mind active
(g) Study of causes of differences of opinion
(h) Discrimination of mere assertion from proof

III. SYSTEM
(a) Importance of grasping the fundamental idea
(b) Preliminary arrangement of ideas
(c) Classification and arrangement

IV. MENTAL INITIATIVE
(a) Interest in subject of study essential
(b) Formulation of problem essential
(c) Independent work essential
(d) Drawing conclusions independent of author
(e) Independence in arriving at conclusions
(f) Generalizing
(g) Going beyond the book
(h) Visualizing results

V. HABITS OF WORK
(a) Selection of book
(b) Proper number of subjects to be studied at once
(c) Haste undesirable
(d) Taking studies seriously
(e) Judicious skipping
(f) Systematic program of work
(g) Cultivation of concentration
(h) Applying what is learned
(i) Avoidance of indifference
(j) Thorough knowledge of a few books
(k) List of references should be made
(l) Frequent reviews desirable
(m) Regular times for recreative study
(n) Physical exercise essential

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS
IMPORTANCE OF REFUSING TO BE DISCOURAGED, AND OF SEEKING THE WORK ONE CAN DO BEST.

REFERENCES

"The process of investigating any subject is a process of question and answer. The student must first propound to himself a question, and it must be the proper question. He must be able to perceive what the proper question is, under the circumstances. Then he must give to himself the proper answer out of all the possible answers that are verbally correct, namely, the answer that affords a new vantage ground from which another question may be asked; and so the problem may be gradually unravelled.

Then again, many questions are indefinite, and can only be answered indefinitely; but to all questions a correct answer can be given, and the student must give the most definite answer the case admits of, and must gain the ability to qualify his answer or classify possible cases in such manner as may be necessary."

Link 1 - Read online (Project Gutenberg)
Link 2 - Read online (Archive.org)
Link 3 - Amazon.com

The Young Man and Civil Engineering - By George Fillmore Swain (1922)
Link - Read online (Archive.org)

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Elementary Lessons In Logic: Deductive and Inductive - By William Stanley Jevons (1870)
"Henry Hazlitt strongly recommended this book for all students of the social sciences. It had a formative influence on his life. In fact, it is the book that taught him how to think.

And not only Hazlitt. William Stanley Jevons's book was the seminal contribution that educated many generations of English and American scholars that crucial discipline of logic. It teaches the rules for thinking. Now, this was a subject that every student once had to take, and not in college but quite early in life, and certainly by high school.

No more. Today, it is widely assumed that there is no structure of thinking that is worth studying. And perhaps that explains why serious thinking is so rare. It is nothing short of astonishing that most people go all the way through school with no exposure to logic at all." (Mises.org)

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Source: pdf in Link 2)

Lesson
I. Definition and Sphere of the Sciences
II. The Three Parts of Logical Doctrine

TERMS.

III. Terms and their various Kinds
IV. Of the Ambiguity of Terms
V. Of the twofold meaning of terms--in Extension and Intension
VI. The Growth of Language
VII. Leibnitz on Knowledge

PROPOSITIONS.

VIII. Kinds of Propositions
IX. The Opposition of Propositions
X. Conversion of Propositions, and Immediate Inference
XI. Logical Analysis of Sentences
XII. The Predicables, Division, and Definition
XIII. Pascal and Descartes on Method

SYLLOGISM.

XIV. The Laws of Thought
XV. The Rules of the Syllogism
XVI. The Moods and Figures of the Syllogism
XVII. Reduction of the Imperfect Figures
XVIII. Irregular and Compound Syllogisms
XIX. Of Conditional Arguments

FALLACIES.

XX. Logical Fallacies
XXI. Material Fallacies

RECENT LOGICAL VIEWS.

XXII. The Quantification of the Predicate
XXIII. Boole's System of Logic

METHOD.

XXIV. Of Method, Analysis, and Synthesis

INDUCTION.

XXV. Perfect Induction and the Inductive Syllogism
XXVI. Geometrical and Mathematical Induction, Analogy, and Example
XXVII. Observation and Experiment
XXVIII. Methods of Induction
XXIX. Methods of Quantitative Induction
XXX. Empirical and Deductive Methods
XXXI. Explanation, Tendency, Hypothesis, Theory and Fact

SUBSIDIARIES OF INDUCTION.

XXXII. Classification, and Abstraction
XXXIII. Requisites of a Philosophical Language

Questions and Exercises
Examples of Terms
Examples of Propositions
Examples of Arguments
Index

Link 1 - Free pdf download (Mises.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1918)(Archive.org)

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How To Study In College - (Seventh Edition) - By Walter Pauk (2001)
Excerpt - (Archive.org)
Link - Amazon.com

How To Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method - By George Polya (1945)
"In this best-selling classic, George Pólya revealed how the mathematical method of demonstrating a proof or finding an unknown can be of help in attacking any problem that can be "reasoned" out--from building a bridge to winning a game of anagrams. Generations of readers have relished Pólya's deft instructions on stripping away irrelevancies and going straight to the heart of a problem. How to Solve It popularized heuristics, the art and science of discovery and invention. It has been in print continuously since 1945 and has been translated into twenty-three different languages." (Princeton University Press)

George Pólya & How to solve It - Short bio and description of Polya's Four Principles
Link 1 - Read online (Scribd)
Link 2 - Amazon.com

What Smart Students Know - By Adam Robinson (1993)
Link - Amazon.com

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The Improvement of the Mind: A Discourse on the Education of Children and Youth - By Isaac Watts (1768, 1825)
Note: This book was mentioned by Henry Hazlitt, in his book, "Thinking as a Science."

Table of Contents - Incomplete list of chapter links
Link 1 - Read online (Google Books)(1825)
Link 2 - Read online (1768)(Archive.org)

Of Studies - Essay by Sir Francis Bacon (1625)
Note: This essay was mentioned by Henry Hazlitt, in his tutorial, "Thinking as a Science."
Link - (Authorama.com)

Thinking as a Science - By Henry Hazlitt (1916)
"It's incredible that this 1916 tutorial on how to think, by none other than Henry Hazlitt, would still hold up after all these years. But here's why. Hazlitt was largely self-educated. He read voraciously. He trained himself to be a great intellect. In the middle of this process, he discovered that it is far more important to learn to think clearly than to merely take in information." (Mises.org)

Link 1 - Read online (Archive.org)
Link 2 - (MP3 audio: 2012)(Archive.org)

_______________________________________
Memory: How to develop, train and use it - By William Walker Atkinson (1912, 1919)
Note: Feel free to focus on the practical aspects and ignore the "new age" philosophy that is sometimes slipped in.

"The purpose of this book is to teach the "natural methods of memory cultivation" and to show how "artificial memory systems" may damage natural memory. Natural associations educate, while artificial ones tend to weaken the powers of the mind, if carried to any great length."

Excerpt:

"We must be careful, however, only to associate together such things as we wish to be associated together and to recall each other; and the associations we form should be based on fundamental and essential, and not upon mere superficial or casual resemblances. When things are associated by their accidental, and not by their essential qualities, — by their superficial, and not by their fundamental relations, they will not be available when wanted, and will be of little real use. When we associate what is new with what most nearly resembles it in the mind already, we give it its proper place in our fabric of thought. By means of association by similarity, we tie up our ideas, as it were, in separate bundles, and it is of the utmost importance that all the ideas that most nearly resemble each other be in one bundle.

The best way to acquire correct associations, and many of them, for a separate fact that you wish to store away so that it may be recollected when needed — some useful bit of information or interesting bit of knowledge, that "may come in handy" later on — is to analyze it and its relations. This may be done by asking yourself questions about it — each thing that you associate it with in your answers being just one additional "cross-index" whereby you may find it readily when you want it. As Kay says: "The principle of asking questions and obtaining answers to them, may be said to characterize all intellectual effort." ... When you wish to so consider a fact, ask yourself the following questions about it:

I. Where did it come from or originate?

II. What caused it?

III. What history or record has it?

IV. What are its attributes, qualities and characteristics?

V. What things can I most readily associate with it? What is it like?

VI. What is it good for — how may it be used — what can I do with it?

VII. What does it prove — what can be deduced from it?

VIII. What are its natural results — what happens because of it?

IX. What is its future; and its natural or probable end or finish?

X. What do I think of it, on the whole - what are my general impressions regarding it?

XI. What do I know about it, in the way of general information?

XII. What have I heard about it, and from whom, and when?

If you will take the trouble to put any "fact" through the above rigid examination, you will not only attach it to hundreds of convenient and familiar other facts, so that you will remember it readily upon occasion, but you will also create a new subject of general information in your mind of which this particular fact will be the central thought."

Link 1 - Read online (1919)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1912)(Archive.org)

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OTHER BOOKS ABOUT LEARNING (Temporary workspace)
(Content may be periodically added or deleted. As always, readers should use discrimination when evaluating material.)

On Self-Culture: Intellectual, Physical & Moral - By John Stuart Blackie (1874, 1875, 1891)
"I therefore earnestly advise all young men to commence their studies, as much as possible, by direct OBSERVATION of FACTS, and not by the mere inculcation of statements from books. A useful book was written with the title,—How to Observe. These three words might serve as a motto to guide us in the most important part of our early education—a part, unfortunately, only too much neglected. All the natural sciences are particularly valuable, not only as supplying the mind with the most rich, various, and beautiful furniture, but as teaching people that most useful of all arts, how to use their eyes. It is astonishing how much we all go about with our eyes open, and yet seeing nothing. This is because the organ of vision, like other organs, requires training; and by lack of training and the slavish dependence on books, becomes dull and slow, and ultimately incapable of exercising its natural function. Let those studies, therefore, both in school and college, be regarded as primary, that teach young persons to know what they are seeing, and to see what they otherwise would fail to see. Among the most useful are, Botany, Zoology, Mineralogy, Geology, Chemistry, Architecture, Drawing, and the Fine Arts. How many a Highland excursion and continental tour have been rendered comparatively useless to young persons well drilled in their books, merely from the want of a little elementary knowledge in these sciences of observation."

"Nothing helps the memory so much as order and classification. Classes are always few, individuals many; to know the class well is to know what is most essential in the character of the individual, and what least burdens the memory to retain."

"Again, if memory be weak, causality is perhaps strong; and this point of strength, if wisely used, may readily be made to turn an apparent loss into a real gain. Persons of very quick memory may be apt to rest content with the faculty, and exhibit with much applause the dexterity only of an intellectual parrot; but the man who is slow to remember without a reason, searches after the causal connection of the facts, and, when he has found it, binds together by the bond of rational sequences what the constitution of his mind disinclined him to receive as an arbitrary and unexplained succession."

Link 1 - Read online (1891)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1874)(Archive.org)
Link 3 - Read online (1875)(electricscotland.com)

How to Observe: Geology - By Henry Thomas De La Beche (1835)
Link - Read online (1835)(Archive.org)

The Principles of Argumentation - By George Pierce Baker & Henry Barrett Huntington (1905)
"The Principles of Argumentation by Baker and Huntington, is another excellent book, not treating of formal logic, but discussing the general principles which should govern the preparation of a paper or argument, the principles of evidence, and the logical fallacies in reasoning. It is recommended to readers. This book is, or has been, used in the course in English at Harvard University, and similar books are used in other colleges. A thorough training in English under a good teacher is a good training in logic, for clear and logical writing requires clear and logical thinking. Nevertheless, the writer strongly advocates the study of formal logic also." ~ George Fillmore Swain, "How to Study"
Link - Read online (1905)(Archive.org)

Studies in Deductive Logic: A manual for students - By William Stanley Jevons (1880)
Link 1 - Read online (1884)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1896)(Archive.org)

The Art of Thinking - By Thomas Sharper Knowlson (1921)
Note: This book was mentioned by Henry Hazlitt, in his book, "Thinking as a Science."

Link 1 - Read online (1921)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1904)(Archive.org) I've added this second link because there were a few pages of the appendix that were missing in the first link.

The Art of Study - Essay by Alexander Bain
Note I: This is chapter VII of "Practical Essays."
Note II: This essay was mentioned by Henry Hazlitt, in his book, "Thinking as a Science."

Link - Read online (1884)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1884)(Archive.org)(HTML doc. is good)

The Elements of Intellectual Science: A Manual for Schools and Colleges - By Noah Porter (1874)
Link - Read online (Archive.org)

Handbook of Logic - By John Daniel Morell (1857)
Link - Read online (Archive.org)

The Study of Words - By Richard Chenevic Trench (1851)
Link - Read online (Archive.org) (1911)

How to Lie with Statistics - By Darrell Huff
"The book is a brief, breezy, illustrated volume outlining common errors, both intentional and unintentional, associated with the interpretation of statistics, and how these errors can lead to inaccurate conclusions. In the 1960s and '70s it became a standard textbook introduction to the subject of statistics for many college students. It has become one of the best-selling statistics books in history, with over one and a half million copies sold in the English-language edition, even though the monetary examples have become dated because of inflation.[1] It has also been widely translated." (Wikipedia)
Link - Read online (1973)(1'st edition was in 1954)(Archive.org)

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MOVIES | TELEVISION | VIDEOS
_______________________________________
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_______________________________________
JOHN TAYLOR GATTO

The Ultimate History Lesson: A Weekend with John Taylor Gatto
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

14 Principles of an Elite Boarding School Curriculum
This video summarizes the 14 principles which Gatto covered in part of "The Ultimate History Lesson" interview. (excerpt of another video)
Video

_______________________________________
The Call of the Entrepreneur - (2007)
"The Acton Institute has put together a very effective hour-long feature called The Call of the Entrepreneur, which has been premiering in theaters across the country over the past several months. We had the pleasure of premiering it in our own home not long ago, and it is quite excellent. For once, the moral dimension of entrepreneurial activity is brought to the fore and celebrated. For once the heroes are creators, not political hacks.

The film centers around three individuals and their stories. So as not to spoil it, I won’t reveal anything more. But it’s about time the private sector got this kind of sympathetic and compelling treatment. (The production values are surprisingly good, too.)"
(Thomas E. Woods)

Trailer
Full Movie

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Longitude - (2000)
"Gracefully adapted from Dava Sobel's extraordinary bestseller, the four-part TV production of Longitude combines drama, history, and science into a stimulating, painstakingly authentic account of personal triumph and joyous discovery. Equally impressive is the way writer-director Charles Sturridge has crafted parallel stories that complement each other with enriching perspective. The first story involves the successful 40-year effort of 18th-century clockmaker John Harrison (Michael Gambon) to solve the elusive problem of measuring longitude at sea. In 1714 the British Parliament had offered a generous reward to anyone who solved the problem, and Harrison devoted his life to that solution. The second story, some 200 years later, involves the effort of shell-shocked British Navy veteran Rupert Gould (Jeremy Irons) to restore the glorious clocks that Harrison had built. Like Harrison, Gould is the most admirable type of obsessive, but, also like Harrison, he risks his marriage to accomplish his difficult task.

Thousands of sailors perished at sea before Harrison's triumph changed history, but Longitude demonstrates that Harrison's glory was slow to arrive--and his prize money even slower. A fascinating study of 18th-century British politics and clashing egos in the arena of science, the film is both epic and intimate in consequence, and Sturridge's magnificent script inspires Gambon and Irons to do some of the best work of their outstanding careers. The ever-reliable Ian Hart appears in Part 3 as Harrison's now-adult son and apprentice, and Longitude approaches its dramatic climax with the exhilarating tension of a first-rate thriller. Rallying after sickness to prove the integrity of their marvelous seafaring chronometers, the Harrisons still had to fight for official recognition, and Gould's restoration of the Harrison clockworks provides a fitting coda to this exceptional story about the thrill of discovery and the tenacity of remarkable men."
~ Jeff Shannon (Amazon.com Editorial Review)

Trailer

Full Movie (YouTube):
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14
Part 15
Part 16
Part 17
Part 18
Part 19
Part 20
Part 21

_______________________________________
The Machine That Made Us - (2008)
"Gutenberg's development of the printing press, one of the most important machines ever invented, ignited a cultural revolution. Stephen Fry, writer and actor, travels to the birthplace of the 15th Century machine and commissions a modern day craftsman to build a working replica that demonstrates the brilliance of Gutenberg's invention."
(Trailer description)

Trailer

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

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James J. Hill: Empire Builder - (2005)
Note: See also book section for James J. Hill.
"A brief history of the life and times of James J. Hill co-produced with the Minnesota Historical Society." (2005)(Twin Cities Public Television)

Full Movie

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Tesla - Master of Lightning - (2000)
Note: See also book section for Nikola Tesla.
"Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 -- 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electrical supply system."

Full Movie

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Gifted Hands - (2009)

Trailer
Full Movie

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The Ludwig von Mises Story
"What kind of man was Ludwig von Mises? As this unique film shows, Mises (1881-1973) was a man who never stopped fighting for freedom: not when the Nazis burned his books, not when the Left blackballed him at universities, not when it seemed as if statism had won. With courage and genius, he fought big government until the day he died ... in 25 books, hundreds of articles, and more than 60 years of teaching... Mises's battles against Communists, Nazis, and other socialists, are featured in this film, as are his ideas of Liberty."

Video

_______________________________________
Economics in One Lesson (Interviews) - Henry Hazlitt
Twelve interviews with different economists about specific chapters in Henry Hazlitt's book, "Economics in One Lesson." See video description for a list of the interviews.

1. Walter Block - The Lesson
2. Thomas DiLorenzo - The Broken Window @ 15:58
3. Jeffrey Herbener - Public Works Means Taxes @ 24:28
4. Tom Woods - Credit Diverts Production @ 41:56
5. Robert Murphy - The Curse of Machinery @ 56:41
6. Walter Block - Disbanding Troops and Bureaucrats @ 1:12:21
7. Mark Thornton - Who's Protected By Tariffs? @ 1:29:35
8. Peter Klein - "Parity" Prices @ 1:47:06
9. Guido Hulsmann - How The Price System Works @ 2:09:13
10. George Reisman - Minimum Wage Laws @ 2:36:41
11. Joseph Salerno - The Function of Profits @ 2:52:45
12. Roger Garrison - The Assault on Saving @ 3:13:18

LUDWIG VON MISES INSTITUTE - CREATIVE COMMONS
(The list above is from the video description.)

Video

_______________________________________
Money, Banking and the Federal Reserve - (1996) Mises Institute
"Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson understood "The Monster". But to most Americans today, "Federal Reserve" is just a name on the dollar bill. They have no idea of what the central bank does to the economy, or to their own economic lives; of how and why it was founded and operates; or of the sound money and banking that could end the statism, inflation, and business cycles that the Fed generates.

Dedicated to Murray N. Rothbard, steeped in American history and Austrian economics, and featuring Ron Paul, Joseph Salerno, Hans Hoppe, and Lew Rockwell, this extraordinary documentary is the clearest, most compelling explanation ever offered of the Fed, and why curbing it must be our first priority.

Video

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Free to Choose - (1980)
"Free to Choose (1980) is a book and a ten-part television series broadcast on public television by economists Milton and Rose D. Friedman that advocates free market principles.

Free to Choose: A Personal Statement maintains that the free market works best for all members of a society, provides examples of how the free market engenders prosperity, and maintains that it can solve problems where other approaches have failed. Published in January 1980, the 297 page book contains 10 chapters. The book was on the United States best sellers list for 5 weeks.

PBS telecast the series, beginning in January 1980. The general format was that of Dr. Friedman visiting and narrating a number of success and failure stories in history, which Dr. Friedman attributes to capitalism or the lack thereof (e.g. Hong Kong is commended for its free markets, while India is excoriated for relying on centralized planning especially for its protection of its traditional textile industry). Following the primary show, Dr. Friedman would engage in discussion with a number of selected debaters drawn from trade unions, academy and the business community..." (Wikipedia)

Part 1 - “The Power of the Market”
Part 2 - "The Tyranny of Control"
Part 3 - "Anatomy of Crisis" (Friedman was a proponent of the Federal Reserve System. See Mises Institute for an accurate explanation of how this institution is actually harmful and creates the "boom & bust" cycle).
Part 4 - "From Cradle to Grave"
Part 5 - "Created Equal"
Part 6 - "What’s Wrong With Our Schools"
Part 7 - "Who Protects the Consumer"
Part 8 - "Who Protects the Worker"
Part 9 - "How to Cure Inflation"
Part 10 - "How to Stay Free"

_______________________________________
How an Economy Grows and Why It Doesn't - (Storybook) Irwin Schiff

Video

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The Kingdom of Moltz - (Storybook) Irwin Schiff
"About inflation and where it comes from."

Video

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Harvest of Despair: The 1932-33 Man-made Famine in Ukraine - (1984)
Note: See video description to jump to different parts of the movie.
"It is called the forgotten holocaust - a time when Stalin was dumping millions of tons of wheat on Western markets, while in Ukraine, men, women, and children were dying of starvation at the rate of 25,000 a day, 17 human beings a minute. Seven to ten million people perished in a famine caused not by war or natural disasters, but by ruthless decree...In 1932-33, roughly one-quarter of the entire population of Ukraine perished through brutal starvation. Harvest of Despair, through its stark, haunting images, provides the eloquent testimony of a lost generation that has been silenced too long." (Source)

Full Movie

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What Soviet Agriculture Teaches Us - Yuri N. Maltsev
Presentation at Mises Circle on May 14, 2011.

Video

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Argentina’s Economic Collapse
"Documentary on the events that led to the economic collapse of Argentina in 2001 which wiped out the middle class and raised the level of poverty to 57.5%. Central to the collapse was the implementation of neo-liberal policies which enabled the swindle of billions of dollars by foreign banks and corporations. Many of Argentina's assets and resources were shamefully plundered. Its financial system was even used for money laundering by Citibank, Credit Suisse, and JP Morgan. The net result was massive wealth transfers and the impoverishment of society which culminated in many deaths due to oppression and malnutrition."

Full Movie

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Amazing Grace - (2006)
"Amazing Grace is a 2006 biographical drama film directed by Michael Apted, about the campaign against slave trade in the British Empire, led by William Wilberforce, who was responsible for steering anti-slave trade legislation through the British parliament. The title is a reference to the hymn "Amazing Grace". The film also recounts the experiences of John Newton as a crewman on a slave ship and subsequent religious conversion, which inspired his writing of the poem later used in the hymn. Newton is portrayed as a major influence on Wilberforce and the abolition movement." (Wikipedia)

Trailer
Full Movie

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Martin Luther: Reluctant Revolutionary
"Few if any men have changed the course of history like Martin Luther. In less than ten years, this fevered German monk plunged a knife into the heart of an empire that had ruled for a thousand years, and set in motion a train of revolution, war and conflict that would reshape Western civilization, and lift it out of the Dark Ages.

Luther's is a drama that still resonates half a millennium on. It's an epic tale that stretches from the gilded corridors of the Vatican to the weathered church door of a small South German town; from the barbarous pyres of heretics to the technological triumph of printing. It is the story of the birth of the modern age, of the collapse of medieval feudalism, and the first shaping of ideals of freedom and liberty that lie at the heart of the 21st century." (PBS)

Full Movie






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Added:

The following quote has been added just under the introduction of this post. It discusses observation, logic, life experience, and how they relate to each other.

"At this point I can imagine it not unlikely that some young man may be inclined to ask me whether I should advise him, with the view of strengthening his reasoning powers, to enter upon a formal study of logic and metaphysics. To this I answer, By all means, if you have first, in a natural way, as opposed to mere scholastic discipline, acquired the general habit of thinking and reasoning. A man has learned to walk first by having legs, and then by using them. After that he may go to a drill-sergeant and learn to march, and to perform various tactical evolutions, which no experience of mere untrained locomotion can produce. So exactly it is with the art of thinking. Have your thinking first, and plenty to think about, and then ask the logician to teach you to scrutinise with a nice eye the process by which you have arrived at your conclusions. In such fashion there is no doubt that the study of logic may be highly beneficial. But as this science, like mathematics, has no real contents, and merely sets forth in order the universal forms under which all thinking is exercised, it must always be a very barren affair to attempt obtaining from pure logic any rich growth of thought that will bear ripe fruit in the great garden of life. One may as well expect to make a great patriot —a Bruce or a Wallace—of a fencing master, as to make a great thinker out of a mere logician. So it is in truth with all formal studies. Grammar and rhetoric are equally barren, and bear fruit only when dealing with materials given by life and experience. A meagre soul can never be made fat, nor a narrow soul large, by studying rules of thinking. An intense vitality, a wide sympathy, a keen observation, a various experience, is worth all the logic of the schools; and yet the logic is not useless; it has a regulative, not a creative virtue; it is useful to thinking as the study of anatomy is useful to painting; it gives you a more firm hold of the jointing and articulation of your framework; but it can no more produce true knowledge than anatomy can produce beautiful painting. It performs excellent service in the exposure of error and the unveiling of sophistry; but to proceed far in the discovery of important truth, it must borrow its moving power from fountains of living water, which flow not in the schools, and its materials from the facts of the breathing universe, with which no museum is furnished."
~ John Stuart Blackie, "On Self-Culture: Intellectual, Physical & Moral" (1874)

Added: *edit*

Under the section covering the book, "Memory: How to develop, train and use it":

"The purpose of this book is to teach the "natural methods of memory cultivation" and to show how "artificial memory systems" may damage natural memory. Natural associations educate, while artificial ones tend to weaken the powers of the mind, if carried to any great length."

Excerpt:

"We must be careful, however, only to associate together such things as we wish to be associated together and to recall each other; and the associations we form should be based on fundamental and essential, and not upon mere superficial or casual resemblances. When things are associated by their accidental, and not by their essential qualities, — by their superficial, and not by their fundamental relations, they will not be available when wanted, and will be of little real use. When we associate what is new with what most nearly resembles it in the mind already, we give it its proper place in our fabric of thought. By means of association by similarity, we tie up our ideas, as it were, in separate bundles, and it is of the utmost importance that all the ideas that most nearly resemble each other be in one bundle.

The best way to acquire correct associations, and many of them, for a separate fact that you wish to store away so that it may be recollected when needed — some useful bit of information or interesting bit of knowledge, that "may come in handy" later on — is to analyze it and its relations. This may be done by asking yourself questions about it — each thing that you associate it with in your answers being just one additional "cross-index" whereby you may find it readily when you want it. As Kay says: "The principle of asking questions and obtaining answers to them, may be said to characterize all intellectual effort." ... When you wish to so consider a fact, ask yourself the following questions about it:

I. Where did it come from or originate?

II. What caused it?

III. What history or record has it?

IV. What are its attributes, qualities and characteristics?

V. What things can I most readily associate with it? What is it like?

VI. What is it good for — how may it be used — what can I do with it?

VII. What does it prove — what can be deduced from it?

VIII. What are its natural results — what happens because of it?

IX. What is its future; and its natural or probable end or finish?

X. What do I think of it, on the whole - what are my general impressions regarding it?

XI. What do I know about it, in the way of general information?

XII. What have I heard about it, and from whom, and when?

If you will take the trouble to put any "fact" through the above rigid examination, you will not only attach it to hundreds of convenient and familiar other facts, so that you will remember it readily upon occasion, but you will also create a new subject of general information in your mind of which this particular fact will be the central thought."

Books about thinking

Oh, my goodness. An excellent post. Swain's and Jevons' works are my cups of tea. But even though they are, I recommend thinking to those books, because books pertaining to the mind should be read with caution.

Such books, books about thinking, can undermine the mind if a mind that encounters them has not been independent, has not thought, has not been active, has been rote. I recommend parents encourage their children to use their minds to improve their minds so that books remain in their place, in second place.

Back to Swain and Jevons. Their subjects are in my screen name, whose appearance is short of what I wanted when I became a DPer. I was hopeful my name could be A:B::B:A, a name whose meaning I discussed twice on the DP and that expresses this word: relationship.

Can DP names be changed? I think they can. Name change at least is possible for one DPer, Chris Changelastnamedailyski. :P

School's fine. Just don't let it get in the way of thinking. -Me

Study nature, not books. -Walton F. Dutton

I've never read how... *edit*

you came up with your screen name, though I've wondered about it from time to time. Name change? It may be possible, but I'm not sure how it would affect other aspects of your account.

I see your point about books pertaining to thinking. I've excluded some books in the past, from the post, for that reason. This post started as a mixed collection of tangentially related topics, my idea box, so to speak. As a result, there's not a lot of commentary or precautionary notes, other than the short caveat in the beginning of the post. Maybe I'll add a few as it evolves and I figure out how to divide the sections properly. I don't have the same time I did when I created the health post. Right now, I just pop in from time to time to tweak a few things. :-)

Btw, have you read Swain's study book before? I just finished it for the first time. In the first chapter of Swain's book, he says that having an attitude of mental courage and independence is a necessary prerequisite to studying a book so that one can discriminate and master a book instead of having a book master them. He also addresses the weaknesses of students who only learn by rote and never develop discernment and true understanding of a subject.

Also, I've added a biographical memoir about him to the OP. Interesting read...

Changes and Additions: *Edit*

It's hard to say for sure when most of the recent updates were added, but I'll try to start recording the major changes in the comments like I do with my other posts. You'll notice that I link to many books on learning from the 1800s and early to mid 1900s. Far from being archaic, some of these books on learning are underappreciated gems. They teach basic principles of thinking that can be applied just as easily in the technological age we currently live in.

I've also reordered the categories, placing the books first, adding a few quotes here and there.

Added under the "Learning & Mental Development" category:

How To Study - By George Fillmore Swain (1917)
Link 1 - Read online (Project Gutenberg)
Link 2 - Read online (Archive.org)
Link 3 - Amazon.com

Elementary Lessons In Logic: Deductive and Inductive - By William Stanley Jevons (1870)
"Henry Hazlitt strongly recommended this book for all students of the social sciences. It had a formative influence on his life. In fact, it is the book that taught him how to think.

And not only Hazlitt. William Stanley Jevons's book was the seminal contribution that educated many generations of English and American scholars that crucial discipline of logic. It teaches the rules for thinking. Now, this was a subject that every student once had to take, and not in college but quite early in life, and certainly by high school.

No more. Today, it is widely assumed that there is no structure of thinking that is worth studying. And perhaps that explains why serious thinking is so rare. It is nothing short of astonishing that most people go all the way through school with no exposure to logic at all." (Mises.org)

Link 1 - Free pdf download (Mises.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1918)(Archive.org)

The Improvement of the Mind: A Discourse on the Education of Children and Youth - By Isaac Watts
Note: This book was mentioned by Henry Hazlitt, in his book, "Thinking as a Science."

Table of Contents - Incomplete list of chapter links
Link 1 - Read online (Google Books)(1825)
Link 2 - Read online (1768)(Archive.org)

Of Studies - Essay by Sir Francis Bacon (1625)
Note: This essay was mentioned by Henry Hazlitt, in his tutorial, "Thinking as a Science."
Link - (Authorama.com)

Thinking as a Science - By Henry Hazlitt (1916)
"It's incredible that this 1916 tutorial on how to think, by none other than Henry Hazlitt, would still hold up after all these years. But here's why. Hazlitt was largely self-educated. He read voraciously. He trained himself to be a great intellect. In the middle of this process, he discovered that it is far more important to learn to think clearly than to merely take in information." (Mises.org)

Link 1 - Read online (Archive.org)
Link 2 - (MP3 audio: 2012)(Archive.org)

How To Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method - By George Polya (1945)
"In this best-selling classic, George Pólya revealed how the mathematical method of demonstrating a proof or finding an unknown can be of help in attacking any problem that can be "reasoned" out--from building a bridge to winning a game of anagrams. Generations of readers have relished Pólya's deft instructions on stripping away irrelevancies and going straight to the heart of a problem. How to Solve It popularized heuristics, the art and science of discovery and invention. It has been in print continuously since 1945 and has been translated into twenty-three different languages." (Princeton University Press)

George Pólya & How to solve It - Short bio and description of Polya's Four Principles
Link 1 - Read online (Scribd)
Link 2 - Amazon.com

What Smart Students Know - By Adam Robinson (1993)
Link - Amazon.com

How To Study In College - (Seventh Edition) - By Walter Pauk (2001)
Link - Amazon.com

Memory: How to develop, train and use it - By William Walker Atkinson (1919)
The purpose of this book is to teach the "natural methods of memory cultivation' and to show how "artificial memory systems" may damage natural memory. "Natural associations educate, while artificial ones tend to weaken the powers of the mind, if carried to any great length."
Note: Feel free to focus on the practical aspects and ignore the "new age" philosophy that is sometimes slipped in.
Link 1 - Read online (1919)(Archive.org)
Link 2 - Read online (1912)(Archive.org)

still, your use of

still, your use of punctuation has improved greatly since you started your health thread.

Every stroke, curve and mark is a symbol that carries a message, a message from the physical plane to the mental plane and vice versa.

Nice job, still. :)

School's fine. Just don't let it get in the way of thinking. -Me

Study nature, not books. -Walton F. Dutton

WOW

Magnificent Post! Bookmarked for research!

Thank you.

:: Bump!

Thank you so much for this piece! I bookmarked it, I just hope that we get live links forever! Stay true and I'll get through it all as a class. I hope to archive all links and article. Any ideas how to do all that?

Freedom Lovers Unite : to bring in our last chance for what was a great country back again into the hands of the people.

What are

"live links"? I'm not very web page savvy when it comes to code but in your internet browser (firefox in my case), you can select "Tools" then "Web Developer" then "Page Source", to view all of the code on the page, including the links. Then just "Select all" then copy and paste to wherever you want to save it. There may be a better way to archive all the links but I'm not sure what it would be.

Added:

I've added the full version of "The Call of the Entrepreneur" to the post whereas I previously only had the trailer. Thanks to RobHino for finding the full version.

Full Movie

I've also embedded the trailer at the beginning with a couple quotes from the video and renamed the title to emphasize the importance of the entrepreneur in the post, though the post covers a few other tangential subjects such as history, economics, and learning.

only 12 videos about the panda menace? What about

'Mitt'?

I saw the best minds of my generation, destroyed by pandas starving hysterical naked

-Allen Ginsberg

I'm not sure

what you are referring to when you say 'panda menace' or 'Mitt'? Is this humor?

It's my way of saying

'Bump'.

I saw the best minds of my generation, destroyed by pandas starving hysterical naked

-Allen Ginsberg

Ok thanks~

I just woke up so I haven't fully wiped the sleep from my eyes. I take everything a bit literally this time of the day. :-)

George Racey Jordan

Repeat: George Racey Jordan.

As important as anything else on this and maybe more so with all respect.

I saw the best minds of my generation, destroyed by pandas starving hysterical naked

-Allen Ginsberg

far

Out.

I saw the best minds of my generation, destroyed by pandas starving hysterical naked

-Allen Ginsberg

thank U 4 this :)

BUMP #2

"You only live free if your willing to die free."

Bump

.

Re documentaries and biographies,

thanks for this great list.

In case you're wondering how I've come upon your posts today... recently I was ecstatic to read that Mexico had banned GMO corn, surprised at what looked like a "negative" comment on that thread by js290, saying that maybe corn wasn't such a great staple anyway. He'd embedded a 2+ hour-long video on Restorative Agriculture. I'm familiar with biodynamics, which (also) not only doesn't put anything toxic into the soil but restores it, so I decided to check it out. I found it fascinating and have now watched or read some other things recommended by js. Then today, I was just curious and put "permaculture" into the DP "word cloud" - which turned up the video "Farming With Nature." I was sorry it didn't really get noticed. Well, one more person in the world will have seen it by tonight. :) Anyway, I was curious what some of your other posts might have been. That turned up the statistics book I'm familiar with; not too long ago I mentioned it in a comment saying I thought it should be high-school required reading. And this post has a lot of interesting resources. So thanks again, stillwater.

When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe.
~ John Muir

The "Farming With Nature"

post was a very old post. I rolled the content over to my much larger Global Gardener Video Library post. This post started out as a permaculture post and there are a ton of videos about permaculture on it, though I list other gardening examples as well. The title is after Bill Mollison's original video series on permaculture. I periodically have to update some of the links as they keep getting taken down by youtube. Enjoy~

http://www.dailypaul.com/72517/global-gardener-video-library

The current post we are on now is sort of a mixture of things. The main aim was to give historical examples to help spark creativity and innovation and to help shed light on the lives of different people to show how things developed. My focus ended up being split in many directions so it's kind of a catch all for things I like to look up periodically. I may revisit it at a later date and try to organize it better.

Thank you

I had once caught the last 15 minutes of Amazing Grace and had really wanted to see the entire movie. Forgot all about it until this was linked in another post.
GREAT movie!! So happy you included it.

If Tyranny and Oppression come to this land, it will be in the guise of fighting a foreign enemy.
James Madison

Added: Free to Choose (Featuring Milton Friedman)

Under Movies & Television category:

Free to Choose - (1980)
"Free to Choose (1980) is a book and a ten-part television series broadcast on public television by economists Milton and Rose D. Friedman that advocates free market principles.

Free to Choose: A Personal Statement maintains that the free market works best for all members of a society, provides examples of how the free market engenders prosperity, and maintains that it can solve problems where other approaches have failed. Published in January 1980, the 297 page book contains 10 chapters. The book was on the United States best sellers list for 5 weeks.

PBS telecast the series, beginning in January 1980. The general format was that of Dr. Friedman visiting and narrating a number of success and failure stories in history, which Dr. Friedman attributes to capitalism or the lack thereof (e.g. Hong Kong is commended for its free markets, while India is excoriated for relying on centralized planning especially for its protection of its traditional textile industry). Following the primary show, Dr. Friedman would engage in discussion with a number of selected debaters drawn from trade unions, academy and the business community..." (Wikipedia)

Part 1 - “The Power of the Market”
Part 2 - "The Tyranny of Control"
Part 3 - "Anatomy of Crisis"
Part 4 - "From Cradle to Grave"
Part 5 - "Created Equal"
Part 6 - "What’s Wrong With Our Schools"
Part 7 - "Who Protects the Consumer"
Part 8 - "Who Protects the Worker"
Part 9 - "How to Cure Inflation"
Part 10 - "How to Stay Free"

New Category: Movies & Television

I've also add two New Sections under the Movies & Television Category:

- Longitude (John Harrison, carpenter, clockmaker, inventor of the marine chronometer)
- James J. Hill: Empire Builder (James J. Hill - Railroads)

(So far, I have only been able to fine 21 YouTube videos for the "Longitued" TV series. If I can find an online version in four parts -- or at least less broken up -- I'll add it.)

Longitude - (2000)
"Gracefully adapted from Dava Sobel's extraordinary bestseller, the four-part TV production of Longitude combines drama, history, and science into a stimulating, painstakingly authentic account of personal triumph and joyous discovery. Equally impressive is the way writer-director Charles Sturridge has crafted parallel stories that complement each other with enriching perspective. The first story involves the successful 40-year effort of 18th-century clockmaker John Harrison (Michael Gambon) to solve the elusive problem of measuring longitude at sea. In 1714 the British Parliament had offered a generous reward to anyone who solved the problem, and Harrison devoted his life to that solution. The second story, some 200 years later, involves the effort of shell-shocked British Navy veteran Rupert Gould (Jeremy Irons) to restore the glorious clocks that Harrison had built. Like Harrison, Gould is the most admirable type of obsessive, but, also like Harrison, he risks his marriage to accomplish his difficult task.

Thousands of sailors perished at sea before Harrison's triumph changed history, but Longitude demonstrates that Harrison's glory was slow to arrive--and his prize money even slower. A fascinating study of 18th-century British politics and clashing egos in the arena of science, the film is both epic and intimate in consequence, and Sturridge's magnificent script inspires Gambon and Irons to do some of the best work of their outstanding careers. The ever-reliable Ian Hart appears in Part 3 as Harrison's now-adult son and apprentice, and Longitude approaches its dramatic climax with the exhilarating tension of a first-rate thriller. Rallying after sickness to prove the integrity of their marvelous seafaring chronometers, the Harrisons still had to fight for official recognition, and Gould's restoration of the Harrison clockworks provides a fitting coda to this exceptional story about the thrill of discovery and the tenacity of remarkable men." ~ Jeff Shannon (Amazon.com Editorial Review)

Trailer

Full Movie (YouTube):
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14
Part 15
Part 16
Part 17
Part 18
Part 19
Part 20
Part 21

- - -
I've also added a new section for a short documentary on James J. Hill.

James J. Hill: Empire Builder - (2005)
Note: See also book section for James J. Hill.
"A brief history of the life and times of James J. Hill co-produced with the Minnesota Historical Society." (2005)(Twin Cities Public Television)

Full Movie

I've cleaned up the post

a bit since it was first created. A lot of additional books have been added as well. More to come in the future...