What about space and time, photons and forces?
because most of the time, what mattered yesterday, doesn't matter today.
"Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the the universe."-- Albert Einstein
Not being a physicist nor a mathematician I think this means that the universe is tending towards complete disorder and heat death.
This is confirmed by the statement in the writings of the apostle Paul that when our first parents disobeyed the commandment not to eat of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil (which are spiritual symbolic terms in addition to being actual realities) death entered the cosmos and since that time everything has been in a state of decomposition, corruption and decay in every sphere of life: physical, emotional, mental, moral and religious.
This then created the condition for the Redemption of the entire Creation in order to raise it up into the realm of the Spirit in which realm God who is a Spirit, lives in unapproachable Light from everlasting to everlasting.
This means that the Plan of God is to restore everything into Himself and this process is what Jesus established through His Crucifixion, Resurrection, Ascension and return in the Spirit, thus uniting the material universe and the Spiritual realm in His own Body.
When this process has been completed God will fill everything and everything will be eternally united in Him.
"Therefore it says, “When he ascended on high he captured captives; he gave gifts to men.” Now what is the meaning of “he ascended,” except that he also descended to the lower regions, namely, the earth? He, the very one who descended, is also the one who ascended above all the heavens, in order to fill all things." (Ephesians 4:8-10)
"But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. But each in his own order: Christ the firstfruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ.
Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power. For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. The last enemy to be destroyed is death. For God has put all things in subjection under his feet. But when it says, all things are put in subjection, it is plain that he is excepted who put all things in subjection under him. When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things in subjection under him, that God may be all in all." (1 Corinthians 15:20-28)
"Jesus answered them: 'Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is a slave to sin. The slave does not remain in the house forever; the son remains forever. So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed.'" (John 8:34-36)
How do you make your case for energy being eternal, and the universe constantly (~) expanding.
"Hell is empty, and all the devils are here" (Shakespeare)
RP 2012~ Intellectual Revolution.
The first for energy being eternal, the first law of thermodynamics. The total energy in an isolated system cannot change. It is just transformed from one to another. Since there is currently no way we know of to bring anything in or out of our universe from another, the total energy remains constant. Now we may find ways to bridge to other universes/dimensions or that wormholes may do this.
As for the universe expanding, this has been measured. It was known for a while that the universe is expanding. (measured by looking at red/blue shift of stars and galaxies all over.) but the question was is the rate of expansion increasing or decreasing. If it is decreasing it would eventually halt expansion and begin contraction. It was though the initial forces from the big bang forced everything outward but gravity would slow it all down and pull it in again. Now if it is increasing then things would go on forever as I stated before. But they weren't sure how this could be possible, there would need to be some force acting on them to pull the galaxies away from each other.
This part is a bit fuzzy on me, but this is where dark matter comes into play. It is estimated that something out there makes up 90% the mass of the universe and we aren't sure what. This unknown was deemed dark matter, and to this day (as far as I'm aware) hasn't been detected directly, only its effects measured. This is where I'm not quite sure of how these mechanics work, but supposedly since this dark matter is spread out almost uniformly across the universe, it actually pulls matter apart and away from each other.
We now know that the universe's expansion speed is increasing by looking at stars that are different distances away from us. Stars further away are moving away from us at slower speeds than those close. Since light has a finite travel speed looking at light that comes from a further source is like looking back in time further.
Sorry I don't have links, but you can look both of them up. First law of thermodynamics and expanding universe.
But my query was in relation to terminology rather than concept.
ie. Should the rate of expansion of the universe be anything other than linear, then that process must be considered finite rather than constant.
In the case for energy being eternal; as energy is relative to space, this would require the universe having definably limits, ie. enclosed within a sphere, and also mean that any change of state within the universe would be energy free.
ashes to ashes, dust to dust
Matter, no it is not. Matter can be created with energy. When this is done you create matter and anti-matter. If they collide they destroy themselves and become energy again. I believe they also have a decay rate of their own as well. Which is why they think there is hardly any anti-matter around, it decayed faster than matter. That allows us to live in a matter world not anti-matter world or worse no matter.
The famous equation E=MC^2 gives this relation. As far as we know energy is eternal though. This is not to say matter cannot last forever, just that nothing assures it will.
I am unsure about space and time. It depends at how you look at these. We are in an expanding universe, so it seems the current space we live in will exist forever, but constantly expanding. This will lead to what some people call 'the inevitable heat death of the universe.' Since there is only so much energy to warm the universe, eventually this energy will become so spread out across the expanding universe everything will cool to essentially absolute zero. At this point there wouldn't be enough energy in a given area to do anything. If we were in a contracting universe however, it is believed the universe would collapse in on itself creating a black hole, or possibly another big bang, at witch the cycle begins again.
Time is just another dimension of space as we know it. So looking at time (or space) pre-big bang is pointless to us. But as long as the space exist why wouldn't time.
Photons are created and destroyed rapidly so they are not. A proton is sub-atomic matter, it is one of the components that creates atoms. But it is matter therefore what is stated above goes for this. And Forces are based off of other things. Either a matter, energy, or matter/energy interaction. So as long as what causes them exist then yes. But the forces themselves are constantly created by their sources.
But what it's fundamentally "made of" (energy) is.
"Nothing really matters."
"We are not human beings having a spiritual experience; we are spiritual beings having a human experience"—Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
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