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Pope praises Galileo's astronomy

Pope praises Galileo's astronomy

Pope Benedict had been accused of condoning the heresy charge

Pope Benedict XVI has paid tribute to 17th-Century astronomer Galileo Galilei, whose scientific theories once drew the wrath of the Catholic Church.

The Pope was speaking at events marking the 400th anniversary of Galileo's earliest observations with a telescope.

He said an understanding of the laws of nature could stimulate appreciation of God's work.

In 1992, Pope John Paul said the church's denunciation of Galileo's work had been a tragic error.

Galileo used his scientific methods to demonstrate that the Earth revolved around the Sun and not the other way around.

His view directly challenged the church's view at the time - that the Earth was static and at the centre of the universe.

Galileo was accused of heresy in 1633 and forced to publically recant his theories.

He lived the rest of his life under house arrest at his villa in the hills outside Florence.

Pope Benedict had been criticised in the past for appearing to condone the heresy verdict against Galileo.


After 400 years, the Truth is finally coming out!

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Pope Apologizes after 500 years of Throwing Italian Designer Sho

Pope Apologizes after 500 years of Throwing Italian Designer Shoes at Galileo

Il Papa profesori, the kinder, gentler Inquisitor Ratzinger has decided to make a clean breast of it before the new year. The target of his mea culpa is astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei.

This is the 500 year anniversary of his telescopic invention that called into question the ancient Biblical assumption that the earth was the center of our planetary system. The geo-egocentric system was shaken to the core by the scientific proof that the planets revolve around the sun.

One of the former Cardinal Ratzinger's predecessors was about to execute Galileo when the pragmatic and hedinist Italian told the Pope that he was wrong and that couldn't he just have house imprisonment with vino, pasta and espresso.

Pope Benedict told Galileo's tomb that he and 500 years of Roman Catholic infallibilty were sorry about his hardships but that since they could not be wrong they couldn't really take responsibility for the problems that befall avant garde scientists. Benedict announced the Charles Darwin has been placed on the agenda for the 2508 apology conference.


Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.

Heliocentric Tendencies

Of course, in reality the earth and the sun revolve around each other, but I'd be willing to award the pope with one of my ”Ooh… you made a poo poo by yourself” Buttons in recognition of his contributions to the world.

Galileo's library recreated

Galileo's library recreated

Volumes that formed his personal collection on show

(ANSA) - Florence, December 23 - The books that shaped one of the greatest scientific minds in Western history are the focus of a new exhibition in this Tuscan city.

The National Library of Florence is showcasing 70 volumes that were once part of the personal collection of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642).

''The material on display was selected from the Galileo collection stored in our library,'' explained library director Antonia Idea Fontana. ''They were the source of his research and bear witness to his successes but also show the polemics, the legal arguments and the trials linked to his work''.

The renowned Tuscan astronomer, scientist and mathematician had eclectic taste in reading material, the exhibition shows.

His collection not only included scientific treatises but also copies of Dante's Divine Comedy, the romantic epic poem Orlando Furioso and works by Petrarch. In addition, the show features a number of Galileo's scientific sketches, as well as original ideas and notes he jotted down while reading the various volumes.

''While this is not the first time these books have been displayed, the idea of reconstructing Galileo's personal library is completely new,'' added Fontana. The exhibition is part of a series of events this year commemorating 400 years since Galileo produced his first telescope, revolutionising conceptions of the universe and sparking religious uproar.

He created the device in 1608 [1609], initially producing a lens able to magnify objects threefold and soon after 32-fold.

This put him in a nearly unique position, as he was one of the few people at the time with a lens powerful enough to observe the sky.

His discovery of three [four] of Jupiter's moons and his observation of Venus's phases helped him conclude that the sun was at the centre of the universe, rather than the Earth, as was commonly believed at the time.

Church opposition to Galileo's sun-centred model flared up immediately in 1612 and would dog Galileo for the rest of his life.

An exhibition at the Museum of the History of Science in Florence until the end of December explores this discovery, showing the only two surviving telescopes created by Galileo, as well as dozens of original documents and instruments.

The exhibition on Galileo's personal book collection can be visited at the National Library of Florence until February 28.


A vote for Ron Paul is a vote for James Madison.

Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.

International Year of Astronomy

International Year of Astronomy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see IYA.

The International Year of Astronomy is a year-long celebration of astronomy, taking place in 2009 to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the first recorded astronomical observations with a telescope by Galileo Galilei and the publication of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia nova in the 17th Century. The Year was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the UN. A global scheme, laid out by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), has also been endorsed by UNESCO - the UN body responsible for Educational, Scientific and Cultural matters.

The International Astronomical Union and UNESCO are coordinating the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. This initiative is an opportunity for the citizens of Earth to gain a deeper insight into astronomy’s role in enriching all human cultures. Moreover, it will serve as a platform for informing the public about the latest astronomical discoveries while emphasizing the essential role of astronomy in science education.


1 Significance of 1609


7.2 The Galileoscope


7.8 Galileo Teacher Training Program


Significance of 1609

In 1609, Galileo Galilei first turned one of his telescopes to the night sky and made astounding discoveries that changed mankind’s conception of the world forever: mountains and craters on the Moon, a plethora of stars invisible to the naked eye and moons around Jupiter. Astronomical observatories around the world promise to reveal how planets and stars are formed, how galaxies assemble and evolve, and what the structure and shape of our Universe actually are. In the same year, Johannes Kepler published his work Astronomia nova in which he described the fundamental laws of planetary motions.

On 25th September 1608, Hans Lippershey, a young man from Middleburg, travelled to the Hague, the then capital of the Netherlands, to demonstrate one of his inventions to the Dutch government - the telescope. Although Hans was not awarded the patent, Galileo heard of this story and decided to use the "Dutch perspective glass" and point it towards the heavens.


Aims of IYA2009

Astronomy, the oldest science in history, has played an important role in most, if not all, cultures over the ages. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is intended to be a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture, stimulating worldwide interest not only in astronomy, but in science in general, with a particular slant towards young people.

The IYA2009 is intended to mark the monumental leap forward that followed Galileo’s first use of the telescope for astronomical observations, and portray astronomy as a peaceful global scientific endeavour that unites amateur and professional astronomers in an international and multicultural family that works together to find answers to some of the most fundamental questions that humankind has ever asked. The aim of the Year is to stimulate worldwide interest, especially among young people, in astronomy and science under the central theme “The Universe, Yours to Discover”.


100 Hours of Astronomy

100 Hours of Astronomy (100HA) is a worldwide astronomy event scheduled for April 2-5, 2009 and is part of the scheduled global activities of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The main goals of 100HA is to have as many people throughout the world look through a telescope just as Galileo did for the first time 400 years ago. Plans include special webcasts, students and teachers activities, a schedule of events at science centers, planetariums and science museums as well as 24 hours of sidewalk astronomy, which will allow the opportunity for public observing sessions to as many people as possible.[1]

The Galileoscope
This IYA2009 program wants to share a personal experience of practical astronomical observation with as many people as possible across the world. It is collaborating with the US IYA2009 National Node to develop a simple, accessible, easy-to-assemble and easy-to-use telescope that can be distributed by the millions. In theory, every participant in an IYA2009 event should be able to take home one of these little telescopes, enabling them to observe with an instrument similar to Galileo's.


Galileo Teacher Training Program
The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) provides an excellent opportunity to engage the formal education community in the excitement of astronomical discovery as a vehicle for improving the teaching of science in classrooms around the world. To help train teachers in effective astronomy communication and to sustain the legacy of IYA2009, the IAU — in collaboration with the National Nodes and leaders in the field such as the Global Hands-On Universe project, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific — is embarking on a unique global effort to empower teachers by developing the Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP). The GTTP goal is to create a worldwide network of certified "Galileo Ambassadors" by 2012. These Ambassadors will train "Galileo Master Teachers" in the effective use and transfer of astronomy education tools and resources into classroom science curricula. The Galileo Teachers will be equipped to train other teachers in these methodologies, leveraging the work begun during IYA2009 in classrooms everywhere.

Through workshops, online training tools and basic education kits, the products and techniques developed by this program can be adapted to reach locations with few resources of their own, as well as computer-connected areas that can take advantage of access to robotic optical and radio telescopes, webcams, astronomy exercises, cross-disciplinary resources, image processing and digital universes (web and desktop planetariums).


See also

World Year of Physics 2005

External links

International Year of Astronomy 2009 main web site
International Astronomical Union


The Galileoscope: millions looking at the sky astronomy2009.org
You are Galileo! Low price 10 Dollar Galileoscope for children; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
100 Hours of Astronomy
The Galileoscope


Galileo Teacher Training Program


Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.

One may hope that the

One may hope that the Vatican will one day acknowledge that they were also wrong in the eight year imprisonment of Giordano Bruno after the Inquisition lured him back to Venice by deceiving him that he had an offer for someone to be his patron. I suppose I wouldn't put it past them to claim that they were kind to him by offering to garrot him before setting the stake to which they lashed him on fire if he recanted.

I understand Bruno had taught the Copernican heliocentric theory throughout Europe and England and taught as well that the entire universe had other inhabited planets.

Not to mention the millions of forgotten individuals who were tortured and killed for not accepting the doctrines of the Church. A good argument for separation of Church and State in our time.

Andrew Dickson White wrote a wonderful book entitled: A History of the Warfare Between Science and Theology in Christendom worth reading in this context.

www.campaignforliberty.com membership approaching a milestone at 96,996 Did it! 97,000 at 8:20 on 21 Dec 08 I will keep track of how long it takes to reach milestones of hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands, and millions from now on. Doubling will do it if we each do our part. The day will come when we can elect our like minded people to every level of office and restore the Republic and the Constitution.


"I swear by my life and my love of it that I will never live for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for mine" Ayn Rand in Atlas Shrugged p731

No Man's need constitutes an obligation on the part of another man to fulfill that need.

Here's another great Ayn

Here's another great Ayn Rand quote:

"Do you think that we want those laws to be observed? We want them broken. There’s no way to rule innocent men. The only power the government has is the power to crack down on criminals. Well, when there aren’t enough criminals one makes them. One declares so many things to be a crime that it becomes impossible for men to live without breaking laws. Who wants a nation of law-abiding citizens? What's there in that for anyone? But just pass the kind of laws that can neither be observed nor enforced nor objectively interpreted and you create a nation of law-breakers."


This quote is from Atlas Shrugged. It certainly applies to both Galileo and Bruno.

Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.

Andrew Dickson White wrote

Andrew Dickson White wrote one of the most powerful articles about Galileo:

The War upon Galileo

On this new champion, Galileo, the whole war was at last concentrated.

His discoveries had clearly taken the Copernican theory out of the list of hypotheses, and had placed it before the world as a truth. Against him, then, the war was long and bitter. The supporters of what was called ``sound learning'' declared his discoveries deceptions and his announcements blasphemy. Semi-scientific professors, endeavouring to curry favour with the Church, attacked him with sham science; earnest preachers attacked him with perverted Scripture; theologians, inquisitors, congregations of cardinals, and at last two popes dealt with him, and, as was supposed, silenced his impious doctrine forever.

I shall present this warfare at some length because, so far as I can find, no careful summary of it has been given in our language, since the whole history was placed in a new light by the revelations of the trial documents in the Vatican Library, honestly published for the first time by L'Epinois in 1867, and since that by Gebler, Berti, Favaro, and others.

The first important attack on Galileo began in 1610, when he announced that his telescope had revealed the moons of the planet Jupiter. The enemy saw that this took the Copernican theory out of the realm of hypothesis, and they gave battle immediately. They denounced both his method and its results as absurd and impious. As to his method, professors bred in the ``safe science'' favoured by the Church argued that the divinely appointed way of arriving at the truth in astronomy was by theological reasoning on texts of Scripture; and, as to his results, they insisted, first, that Aristotle knew nothing of these new revelations; and, next, that the Bible showed by all applicable types that there could be only seven planets; that this was proved by the seven golden candlesticks of the Apocalypse, by the seven-branched candlestick of the tabernacle, and by the seven churches of Asia; that from Galileo's doctrine consequences must logically result destructive to Christian truth.

Bishops and priests therefore warned their flocks, and multitudes of the faithful besought the Inquisition to deal speedily and sharply with the heretic.



This article is an excert from Dickson's book.

Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.

Bruno is in the news today

Bruno is in the news today as well:

‘Giordano Bruno’

Published: December 21, 2008
The Hooded Friar
'Giordano Bruno,'
by Ingrid D. Rowland:
(December 21, 2008)

February 17 marks a peculiarly Roman holiday whose ritual centers on the bronze statue of a hooded friar. Just over life size, clutching a book in manacled hands, he glowers over the marketplace of Campo de' Fiori, the "Field of Flowers" that was also, for many years, one of the city's execution grounds. The statue was meant to point in the opposite direction, facing the sun, but a last-minute decision by the City Council of Rome in 1889 turned it around to face the Vatican, which had complained that the original placement was disrespectful. Because of this change in position, the friar's face is always shadowed, so that he looks more melancholy than defiant. But then, he is a man condemned to die by burning at the stake; he has every reason to be melancholy.

For at least five hundred years, Roman statues have been champions of free speech; three blocks from the Campo de' Fiori, an ancient marble wreck of two torsos and a noseless head named Mastro Pasquino has been papered with acid comments on Roman life ever since the first years of the sixteenth century. From satires of the Borgia pope, Alexander VI, he has moved on to hurling invectives against the current prime minister, and for many years a spray-painted feminist graffito on his base proclaimed him Pasquina.

Down the street in the other direction, a togaed ancient Roman called Abbot Luigi (Abate Luigi) has been talking nearly as long as Pasquino; the removal of his grizzled old head by a thief in the 1970s failed to stop his chatter, and he has long since been recapitated with the portrait of some other stern old senator, one no less pleased to speak his mind without inhibition to latter-day Romans. The friar in the Campo de' Fiori makes a worthy companion to this vocal pair, and to their more distant colleagues Madama Lucrezia and Marforio, both of whom, sadly, have been dumbstruck by modern life: Madama Lucrezia may have begun as the cult image of Isis in ancient Rome's most elaborate Egyptian temple, but she now lords it over a bus stop in Piazza Venezia, while handsome Marforio, a strapping Roman river god, is shut up in the Capitoline Museum, where no one can reach him any longer to give him a paper voice. Instead, Giordano Bruno, the friar of Campo de' Fiori, must now speak for them both. And he does, in letters of bronze on his granite pedestal: "To Bruno, from the generation he foresaw, here, where the pyre burned."



Bruno was even more radical than Galileo.

Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.

The circle continues...

If the Catholic Church is still around in 100 years they will be apologizing for things they are doing now out of ignorance of the laws of nature.

This organization is responsible for more death, torture, horror, murder, and just plain ignorance than all the tyrants of history put together.


There is movement afoot to make Galileo a saint. That's "St. Galilei"!

Expect to see some action on this in 2009.

The Vatican will be unveiling a giant statue of Galileo next year that will be placed in a prominent location near the Vatican Palace.

Also, the Vatican is sponsoring a huge International conference of scholars, at least 40 of them, but probably many more. These scholars will present papers about Galileo's use of the telescope, and about Galileo's trial, that will relate to whether Galileo should be made a saint.

2009 willl be a big year!

Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.

For being the head of the vatican...

he's sure outspoken about many controversial things. Of course outspoken people is what brings justice to the world! Regardless of religion. Catholic or not, we need to encourage those that speak freely!

Pray for Your Enemies and Righteous Leaders...so that God May Bring Justice to the Innocent!

+...Pray for Your Enemies and Moral Courage for Righteous Leaders, so that Justice Will Be Delivered to the Innocent...+

The Vatican are old fools

Took them centuries to admit they were wrong about Galileo, still haven't done similar on Copernicus or Bruno, and suprisingly they didn't go after Kepler, Newton, Brahe, or Halley, who added the math behind the first three.

Then the Pope goes and puts his foot in his mouth on the GLBT issue as well. Like he should talk after the problems the RCC had had with their priests lately.

Yet another reason I'm glad I left Rome in the rear-view mirror on the dinsoaur pile of life...

Kepler, Newton, Brahe, and

Kepler, Newton, Brahe, and Halley weren't Catholics.

Bruno has been considered, but he had many core religious views that deviated greatly from orthodoxy, unlike Galileo.

Thomas Jefferson 1796, 1800, 1804; James Madison 1808, 1812; Ron Paul 1988, 2008, 2012; Rand Paul 2016.