Comment: Well, I looked up Lateran

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Well, I looked up Lateran

Well, I looked up the Fourth Lateran council link, and found what I was looking for earlier.


But you should read the whole Fourth Lateran council carefully (you can see it online), because not only did it call for punishment for all declared heretics in the first few canons, but also a crusade, and as I recall, special clothing for jews in other sections. This time period was the start of the inquistions, and relatively near the split between the east and west church too.

I found out recently that Lombard was responsible for some of the discussion about conscience vs conscious at this time period, and have been meaning to read more about him.

Conscience vs conscious use to be the same word. It split I believe about this time. So Lombard is an important point beyond religious doctrine for studying origins.

There are significant discussions of conscience among the Stoics. Seneca the Younger discusses conscience in his Epistulae Morales (43, 97, 105) and attributes several qualities to it. St Paul discusses conscience in various letters (I Corinthians; Romans; Hebrews; Timothy). Whatever the influence of Seneca and St. Paul might be on subsequent discussions of conscience and synderesis, late medieval discussions of conscience derive from Peter Lombard's presentation of the concepts of conscience and synderesis in his Sentences. Lombard cites a passage from St. Jerome, interpreting Ezekiel's vision of four living creatures coming out of a cloud. Each creature was shaped like a man, but each had four faces: the front face was human; the right was that of a lion; the left was that of an ox; and the back was that of an eagle (Ezekiel 1.4–14). Jerome identifies the human face as representing the rational part of man, the lion as the emotional, the ox as the appetitive, and the eagle as that “which the Greeks call synteresis: that spark of conscience which was not even extinguished in the breast of Cain after he was turned out of paradise, and by which we discern that we sin, when we are overcome by pleasures or frenzy and meanwhile are misled by an imitation of reason.” Jerome's comment that synteresis (alternatively, synderesis) is never extinguished in human beings and his remarks elsewhere to the effect that wicked people do cease to have any conscience led Lombard and subsequent thinkers to distinguish synderesis from conscience. While it is unclear that Jerome meant to distinguish the two, the distinction plays a major role in late medieval discussions of conscience.

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.