Comment: I am not an authoritative sourse for your query.

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I am not an authoritative sourse for your query.

Perhaps, for any question.

I gander the answer you may find is, "Yes." The subject is so confusing & cloaked, suffice to say, I don't know.

The British "Crown" took over much of London city & government financing near 330 years ago. The King & Queen became ceremonial, as I recall. The Crown is an independent "City State." It is the apex of the English financial empire. Other financial centers around the world have a central bank at the center of what could be variously called a "City State." Hong Kong was one for over a century, until 1997.

The Vatican is somewhat similar in the center of Rome. It is run by the Catholic Church, not Rome nor Italy. It has divided interests between religion vs finance.

Sorry I cannot be more helpful. I am writing w/o expertise. My eternal predicament.

Disclaimer: Mark Twain (1835-1910-To be continued) is unlicensed. His river pilot's license went delinquent in 1862. Caution advised. Daily Paul