Perhaps a Jew but also a Roman.
The idea that Paul is a Roman citizen derives from the Book of Acts in which Luke records Paul claiming his Roman citizenship on two separate occasions, both in relation to punishment under Roman law. In Acts 22:28, he is recorded as stating that, in contrast to those who paid a large sum of money to acquire citizenship, he was a Roman by birth. In the letters of Paul, such a claim is never made. Marcus J. Borg and John Dominic Crossan wrote "Luke insists that Paul was a Roman citizen, but Paul himself does not mention the claim, he in fact seems to negate it." Paul appears to negate such a claim by stating that he had suffered three beatings by the rod, which was a punishment forbidden upon Roman citizens. However, the fact that he is able to appeal to Caesar, recorded in Acts 25:11, for his final sentencing leads many scholars to believe that he was indeed a Roman citizen. Without Roman citizenship, Paul would not have had this right.
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