Ribah (SP) was a term translated as usury.
You borrow 100oz Gold form me. You get 80 ounces but you owe me one hundred. This was called ribah and was unlawful.
The interest on the money rented was not unlawful, Nor was charging high interest unlawful.
If I borrow 80 ounces of gold for you to demand repayment of 100 was considered a cheat. You could give the lender back his 80oz and still own a hundred. It's not fair.
This is different from me borrowing 80 ounces and repaying you after the transaction out of the profits at the agreed upon interest rate.
The Prophet, with a due respect, was a merchant. Much of the Quran involves making contracts and fulfilling obligations.
The Commercial Heritage and Contribution of Islam from the Mises website.
I would consider a bank charging closing fees to be Ribah. That is usury in the ancient sense. I don't know of any who agree with me, including Najam.
Charging interest on paper money created by fiat is a cheat in my opinion.
Free includes debt-free!