No, not saying you can't pull DNA from bones, only that it becomes more difficult the further back you go in time. DNA is compromised by many things. It depends on the state of preservation and how its collected. To get good DNA the remains would have to be in an excellent state of preservation and the collection process and chain of custody would have to be free of all contamination. If you even so much as cough or sneeze while collecting that DNA you will contaminate the sample.
Tracking Y-DNA would not be useful in tracing roots back to the 12 tribes since Judaism is passed down through the mother, not the father. A man who marries a woman who is not Jewish has children who are not Jewish, unless the woman converts. Only then are the children considered Jewish. So, let's say hypothetically, a Jewish man from the 12 tribes marries a non-Jewish woman who is not semitic and the woman converts and they have children. Those kids are Jewish. The daughter from that marriage who is Jewish, marries a man who is not Jewish or semitic, those kids are Jewish as well. Their children will be Jewish, but only partially semitic. The Y-DNA will be altered for subsequent generations since Y-DNA is passed only through the father and now comes from the non-Jewish, non-semitic man who married that Jewish girl who was only half semitic, and partially descended from one of the 12 tribes. Subsequent generations will show the Y-DNA from the non-Jewish, non-semitic man who married that Jewish girl.
Likewise, the matrilineal DNA won't provide you with the results you seek either. Because of the necessity of conversion to pass on the Jewish religion, the DNA will be diluted as shown in the above example. Again, you'll get an area of origin, and indicators of ethnicity, but you won't be able to prove that they were a descendent of one of the 12 tribes.
Either way, you may be able to trace back to the Middle East area and you may be able to trace to a semitic race, but there is no way to show that the DNA comes from someone who was a member of one of those twelve tribes. You may be able to prove a common ancestor, but there is no way to prove that the common ancestor was one of those twelve tribes unless you have the known, proven body of one of those twelve tribes to compare that DNA to.
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