Very little when I attended actually and even less in our 'modern' Academy. There were no blocks of instruction specific to the Constitution. There were classes on 'Constitutional Law', instruction on 'Search and Seizure' relating to Amendment IV and other blocks of instruction that touched on other specific areas of the Bill of Rights.
Understand that the areas of 'constitutional instruction' were tied to powers & duties of police and on the do's and dont's of 'process'. Any discussion of the role of police in siciety was purely dependent on specific instructors...and largely still is.
I stayed connected with recruit training my whole career and acted as a Recruit Training Officer (RTO), a general instructor tasked with teaching various blocks, a Class Training Sergeant, A lieutenant over Training Staff and even as Interim Academy Director.
I made it a point to be specific on instructing reference the proper role of police in society, strict adherence to the Constitution and Bill of Rights, the mindset and application or being a Peace Officer vs being a 'Law Enforcement Officer' (LEO) and respecting and protecting the liberties of the populous in performance of duties.
This was purely due to my efforts and focus, however.
I cannot speak to academy instruction in other states, but in mine, the Constitution and Liberty protection take a massive backseat to 'enforcement' and court-sanctioned rulings/case law that 'allow' police to exceed the text of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Predatory law 'enforcement' is the rule of modern policing and the role of simply 'keeping the peace' and enforcing law only as necessary to do so, is all but eradicated.
Predatory, aggressive 'law enforcement' is what is expected, demanded and taught. Peace-keeping is largely looked at as laziness and is reviled by the vast majority of line-staff, supervision, mid-management and executive staff.
Sad, but it is a natural response to societal expectations and societal acceptance of collectivism. Government always grows itself and grasps additional powers, duties and authorities by whatever means necessary. Policing is no different.
Collectivism inevitably leads to totalitarianism.
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