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Thanks for the response. I was under the impression we were submitting questions for Dr. Paul (probably misguided on my part). That said, I'm certainly for an open dialogue on the topic.

I believe you are correct that an amendment can alter the Constitution, however, what we did not get with the sixteenth amendment was an explanation as to what Constitutional class of tax the "income" tax falls under.

It's important to make the distinction between the two because each is implemented differently. A direct tax is unavoidable. It must be paid. An indirect tax is avoidable as long as certain activities are the not the subject of a tax. For example, there is a tax imposed upon tobacco use. However, I can avoid the tax by not smoking.

Of course the 16th is of no help in making this determination, there is no mention of direct or indirect specifically. Only a hint toward a direct tax with the words, "without apportionment among the several states."