Bear, the only thing I can think of in regards to the 14th Amendment is the latter part of section 1: "nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Notice that person is not limited to "born or naturalized" and also "any person within its jurisdiction". If the senate bill passes, the preborn could be deemed as a person within the jurisdiction of the states, thus protected. Still, it may not be worded as well as it should. It doesn't restrict Supreme Court jurisdiction. But still a noble effort. If passed it would be a step in the right direction and perhaps save lives.
Ron Paul is 100% anti-abortion and his bill would have outlawed abortion nationwide. You are right, when he says "states-rights" he means in terms of law enforcement. The federal government recognizes the right to life of all persons, born or preborn, but the individual states are the ones that would police it. This idea that Paul wants each state to decide to have abortion or not is NOT his view. It's Gary Johnson's view, but not Ron Paul's.
Here are some good resources: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQKctZ2FyKc & http://kuyperiancommentary.wordpress.com/2012/11/30/champion...
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