You consent or not to government. Government by consent of the people? Civil disobedience means: no consent.
The key element of making this successful is organization. The people, or the minority, require organization so that civil disobedience is consistent. This makes enforcement too difficult for the state.
It's also cultural. The people have to be willing to put up with civil disobedience, to acknowledge it as a proper check on government.
Imagine, people opposing civil disobedience - not because of disagreement on an issue - but because of state worship. This is where self-government goes to die.
Here's another, better, name for 'civil disobedience': POPULAR NULLIFICATION. The states can only nullify unconstitutional federal laws, because states are legal entities bound in compact, which is the US constitution. The people have NO such obligation to the state.
If a law is unjust and contravenes natural rights, a people can 'nullify' it but refusing to obey. Then it becomes a matter of how much money the state will spend to punish people who don't want to follow the law.
If everyone who smoked marijuana secretly came out and smoked openly, there wouldn't be enough jails to hold everyone (they'd try). But imagine healthcare!! Or taxes!!! If enough people came out and refused to pay? Think about it (I'm just saying more people pay taxes than smoke).