I didnt read all of your post, but here is some help.
Just call the us passport office and explain that you have a flight within 48 hrs and need a passport. Hopefully you have a passport agency near you. They will need the flight confirmation number(but i dont think they check when you actually get there...). They wont care if they are booked and you have to leave the country in the next few days or week, they will book the appt anyhow if you have proof of a flight.
You can thus get a passport the same day this way. Total fees are mich less thank what you quoted. Perhaps only 125 iirc
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