FWIW, I'll answer only your last question, likely the most relevant to the OP, and coincidentally the easiest on this end (the others are too open for me) :
"Is a choice to engage in a taxable activity a voluntary act?"
Okay. So, I have to make a living in a supposedly "free" society.
This means I need to be able to sustain myself and whichever number of dependents I may have in my family.
A common way to do so is to work and to make some sustained income (sustained: in time) which, once addedd to theirs if any, is exceeding all our living expenses, mine and theirs, over the same period of time, with preferably a non-insignificant remnant of cash on hand to save for future investment (life projects, material acquisitions, etc).
Did I CHOOSE to be taxed on the income I make while I'm working? Not really. Democratic processes have made that choice for me, instead.
I can also choose NOT to play the game of (taxed) self-reliance and try to find my way to work around it :
1) to become a criminal, or 2) to work for the state, or 3) both, or 4) to not declare my taxes on an income made "under table" while still in the "private sector" (basically, same as #1 since I'm not supposed to ignore or break the law)
So, my bottom line answer would be yes, I suppose:
yes, it's a voluntary act to engage in a taxable activity (as I did).
Only thing is : that's quite a bitterly made one when you don't agree with the underlying principle and still accept to abide to it. Or so perceived, on this end, anyway.
"Your Mileage May Vary."
"Cyril" pronounced "see real". I code stuff.
"To study and not think is a waste. To think and not study is dangerous." -- Confucius
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