What becomes apparent when reading the Ratifying Conventions such as the one presented, Virginia 6-16-1788;
In Full: http://www.americanpatriotparty.cc/americanpatriotpartynewsl...
Is that the Anti Federalists and Federalists did not see things so different;
But that the Federalists Such as Madison, could not comprehend (as Federalist 46 illustrates as well) that those representatives in the future would become so corrupt as to distort and fall prey to the same weaknesses shown of other countries and governments);
The Anti-federalists, such as Patrick Henry and George Mason cautioned that in time they would. And in fact was the case.
James Madison and others actually correctly described the limitations of the federal government its size and scope (All in the VA Ratifying Convention 6-16-1788 - Size Limited to 10 miles square, could only prosecute and define 4 crimes, and could collect taxes under the Welfare clause for 2 things defense and National Debt, and could not govern police outside the ten mile square - i.e. limit of the supremacy clause with regard to the federal government); but only ten years later the federal government made their first corrupt move in passing the Alien and sedition acts - by, as James Madison stated in the Virginia Resolutions, "Expounding on the "General Phrases" (such as the very limited "supremacy Clause") in the Constitution to give them powers "NO WHERE INTENDED";
When correctly applied, as intended, the Constitution maintains the states rights;
James Madison also established in the VA Resolution 1798 this understanding:
The VA Resolution 1798 is so Short, here it is in FULL -
...and by the way, this is a good short half page illustration and "Actual Example" of how simple it is for a state to "NULLIFY" un-delegated federal powers:
Virginia Resolution of 1798
"RESOLVED, That the General Assembly of Virginia, doth unequivocably express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression either foreign or domestic, and that they will support "the government" of the United States in all measures "warranted" by "the former".
That this assembly most solemnly declares a warm attachment to the Union of the "States", to maintain which it pledges all its powers; and that for this end, it is their duty to watch over and oppose every infraction of those principles which constitute the "only basis" of that Union, because a faithful observance of them, can alone secure it's existence and the public happiness.
That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the compact, to which the states are parties; as limited by the "plain sense and intention" of the instrument constituting the "compact"; as NO further valid that they are authorized by the grants "ENUMERATED" in "THAT COMPACT"; and that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said COMPACT, the STATES who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in DUTY bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the "EVIL", and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them.
That the General Assembly doth also express its DEEP REGRET, that a spirit has in sundry instances, been manifested by the federal government, to "enlarge its powers by FORCED constructions" of the constitutional charter which defines them; and that implications have appeared of a "design" to "EXPOUND" certain >>>"GENERAL "PHRASES"
(which having been copied from the very limited grant of power, in the former articles of confederation were the less liable to be misconstrued)
so as to destroy the meaning and effect, of the particular "ENUMERATION" which NECESSARILY EXPLAINS AND LIMITS THE GENERAL PHRASES; and so as to consolidate the states by degrees, into >>>>>>>>>ONE sovereignty (APP: i.e. ONE NATION NO WHERE INTENDED),
the obvious tendency and inevitable consequence of which would be, to >>>"TRANSFORM" the present "republican" system of the United States,
into "an absolute", or "at best" a mixed >>>"MONARCHY"
(APP: Which by the "One Nation" Phrase, and practice, we have become - Correct anyone who murmurers this phrase).
That the General Assembly doth particularly protest against the palpable and alarming infractions of the Constitution, in the two late cases of the "Alien and Sedition Acts" passed at the last session of Congress; the first of which exercises a power "NO WHERE DELEGATED" to the federal government, and which by uniting legislative and judicial powers to those of executive, SUBVERTS THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES of free government; as well as the particular organization, and positive provisions of the federal constitution; and the other of which acts, exercises in like manner, a power NOT delegated by the constitution, but on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments thereto; a power, which more than any other, ought to produce universal alarm, because it is levelled against that right of freely examining public characters and measures, and of FREE COMMUNICATION AMONG THE PEOPLE THEREON, which has ever been justly deemed, the ONLY effectual GUARDIAN of EVERY OTHER RIGHT
That this state having by its Convention, which ratified the federal Constitution, expressly declared, that among other essential rights, "the Liberty of Conscience and of the Press CANNOT be cancelled, abridged, restrained, or modified by "ANY" authority of the "United States","
and from its extreme anxiety to guard these rights from EVERY possible attack of "sophistry or ambition", having with other states, recommended an amendment for that purpose, which amendment was, in due time, annexed to the Constitution; it would mark a reproachable inconsistency, and criminal degeneracy, if an indifference were now shewn, to the most palpable violation of one of the Rights, thus declared and secured; and to the establishment of a precedent which may be fatal to the other.
That the good people of this commonwealth, having ever felt, and continuing to feel, the most sincere affection for their brethren of the other states; the truest anxiety for establishing and perpetuating the union of all; and the most scrupulous fidelity to that constitution, which is the pledge of mutual friendship, and the instrument of mutual happiness; the General Assembly doth solemnly appeal to the like dispositions of the other states, in confidence that they will concur with this commonwealth in declaring, as it does hereby declare, that the acts aforesaid, are unconstitutional;
and that the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each, for co-operating with this state, in maintaining the Authorities, Rights, and Liberties, referred to the "States respectively", or to the people.
That the Governor be desired, to transmit a copy of the foregoing Resolutions to the executive authority of each of the other states, with a request that the same may be communicated to the Legislature thereof; and that a copy be furnished to each of the Senators and Representatives representing this state in the Congress of the United States.
Agreed to by the Senate, December 24, 1798 "
The Kentucky Resolutions 1798 - Thomas Jefferson (one page longer) are a must read also;
Both are found in Full Here:
American Patriot Party.CC
RichardTaylorAPP - Chair - American Patriot Party.CC
John Locke #201, 202, 212 to 232; Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1798; Virginia Ratifying Convention 6-16-1788; Rights of the Colonists 1772.
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