The Pledge of Allegiance was written in 1892 by Socialist Francis Bellamy (1855–1931), who was the cousin of Socialist Utopian novelist Edward Bellamy. The original "Pledge of Allegiance" was published in The Youth's Companion magazine as part of the Public School Celebration of Columbus Day. The event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham, a marketer for the magazine, which had the desired effect of increasing circulation by 50%.
There are many interesting ideas about loyalty oaths like this one.
"Timid men prefer the calm of despotism to the tempestuous sea of liberty" TJ
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