structure of the Constitution is at fault - not just the 14th.
Remember, it was with that Constitution that we traveled to the point of a breakup and re-unification at gunpoint.
The original Constitution got us to the point where we adopted the 14th.
There were other solutions to slavery and liberty for former slaves. The Constitution practically ensured they did not come about as they had in the rest of the world.
The Founders were smart not to give Congress any real legislative power in the Articles. They royally fubar'd that up with the Constitution, effectively (very) ending the notion of a union of sovereign States (nations) held together in friendship under a confederation and kept friendly by their meeting "in Congress" with each other.
This grave error culminated in the aftermath of war in 1865 with a no-looking back change to a "unitary State." We for all practical purposes, completed the transition of this unitary state to a socialist democracy with the 17th amendment.
None of that would have been possible if we had remained under the Articles, reformed or not.