Comment: 1835. Oscola, Chief of the Seminoles, Florida.

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1835. Oscola, Chief of the Seminoles, Florida.

Osceola, Cheif of the Siminoles

In 1835, the U.S. Army arrived in Florida to enforce a Seminole/United States treaty. Seminole leader Osceola led the vastly outnumbered resistance during the Second Seminole War. Drawing on a population of about 4,000 Seminole Indians and 800 allied Black Seminoles, he mustered at most 1,400 warriors (Andrew Jackson estimated they had only 900). They countered combined U.S. Army and militia forces that ranged from 6,000 troops at the outset to 9,000 at the peak of deployment in 1837. To survive, the Seminole allies employed guerrilla tactics with devastating effect against U.S. forces.

[Oscola wanted the U. S. Army to go back home & leave his people in peace.] Osceola came under a flag of truce to negotiation with the U. S. Army in 1837. Rather than negotiate, the U. S. Army arrested & jailed Oscala. He died in jail less than a year later, 1838. His body was buried in disdain without his head. The Seminoles live to this day vowing to never surrender.

Seminole, A Novel of Osceola, Florida's Great Indian War-Chief 1954 Edition. Out of print. A few copies are available under $10.

At the time of his death in 1838, Seminole warrior Osceola was perhaps the most famous and respected Native American in the world. Born a Creek, young Osceola was driven from his home by U. S. Army General Andrew Jackson to Spanish Florida, where he joined the Seminole tribe. Years later, President Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which was not only intended to relocate the Seminoles to hostile lands in the West but would force the return of runaway slaves who had joined that tribe. Osceola — outraged at the loss to his people and homeland — prepared for the war path. The United States had become his foe.
Osceola and the Great Seminole War: A Struggle for Justice and Freedom ☆☆☆☆ 1st Edition, 2012.

Disclaimer: Mark Twain (1835-1910-To be continued) is unlicensed. His river pilot's license went delinquent in 1862. Caution advised. Daily Paul