Aside from using water and chemicals, we use a lot of compressed air.
We don't call it slurry, we call it mud!
The solution is comprised of 98-99.5% water and sand.
0.5-2% is of a chemical nature.
The use of water/chem mix is limited to a short period in the process.
The water mix is used to reduce friction and protect the rock formation.
All water is collected in a lined pool on site and reclaimed off site.
The land is reclaimed as well.
The following is a breakdown of the chemicals used and some other common uses.
Acid-Hydrochloric acid or muriatic Acid. Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in the rock.
Swimming pool chemical and cleaner.
Antibacterial agent-Glutaraldehyde. Eliminates bacteria in the water that produce corrosive by-products.
Disinfectant; sterilizer for medical and dental equipment.
Breaker-Ammonium persulfate. Allows a delayed breakdown of the gel.
Used in hair coloring, as a disinfectant, and in the manufacturing of common household plastics.
Corrosion inhibitor-Formamide. Prevents the corrosion of the well casing.
Used in pharmaceuticals, acrylic fibres and plastics.
Crosslinker-Borate salts. Maintains fluid viscosity as temperatures increase.
Used in laundry detergents, hand soaps and cosmetics.
Friction reducer-Petroleum distillate. "Slicks" the water to minimize friction.
Used in cosmetics including hair, make-up, nail and skin products.
Gel-Guar gum or hydroxyethyl cellulose. Thickens the water in order to suspend the sand.
Thickener used in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, sauces and salad dressings.
Iron control-Citric acid. Prevents precipitation of metal oxides.
Food additive; food and beverages; lemon juice ~7% citric acid.
Clay stabilizer-Potassium chloride. Creates a brine carrier fluid that prohibits fluid interaction with formationclays.
Used in low-sodium table salt substitutes, medicines and IV fluids.
pH adjusting agent-Sodium or potassium carbonate. Maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers.
Used in laundry detergents, soap, water softener and dishwasher detergents.
Proppant-Silica, quartz sand. Allows the fractures to remain open so the gas can escape.
Drinking water filtration, play sand, concrete and brick mortar.
Scale inhibitor-Ethylene glycol. Prevents scale deposits in the pipe.
Used in household cleansers, de-icer, paints and caulk.
Surfactant-Isopropanol. Used to reduce the surface tension of the fracturing fluids, to improve liquid recovery from the well after the frac.
Used in glass cleaner, multi-surface cleansers, antiperspirant, deodorants and hair color.
Water-Water. Used to expand the fracture and deliver proppant (sand).
Landscaping, manufacturing, drinking, etc..
Geologist rarely visit a site after the initial survey. Usually only one visit after drilling begins.
They are not part of they daily crew.
From time to time a "company man" would show up for an hour to check the progress.
A "company man" is from the contractor, such as Shell, Exxon, etc..
The only people on the rig site are:
The tool pusher-site boss. Never comes out of his trailer!
The brakeman(driller)- your life is in his hands! He controls the drill and oversees the deck operations.
A Derrickman- he's up in the crows nest! Your life is in his hands also!
A motorman(sometimes)-maintains equipment. Usually done by the roughnecks!
A couple of roughnecks to grunt!
The mud man/airman is usually a subcontractor.
How much water mix is left in the well?
Hardly a drop.
It all gets blown out to the collection pool during cavitation...a sight to see!
The pipe joints are 30' long.
Pipe dope comes in 5 gal. buckets.
The supervisor is the tool pusher...so...
Joints are 30' long, dope comes in 5 gal. buckets and there is a pusher on every rig!!!
What a job! Haha!
My comments are not meant to support nor oppose fracking.
I do support having the fracking facts!
And I do not know all the facts...
The Constitution Stands.
"That the pen is mightier than the sword would be proven false; if I should take my sword and cut off the hand that holds the pen" - American Nomad