The 1st Amendment circumscribes the lawmaking power of Congress, not that of the States. The States retained the power to do all of the things Congress is barred from doing by the 1st. The idea was that while restrictions on speech may indeed be warranted, it is a difficult question that should not have a singular answer. It's about preserving the republican form of government, and preventing the central government from doing all the kinds of things that sovereign states could do. It's about blocking nationalism.
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