...% of GDP that matters, though -- it's the fundamental power structure within the society: either a strong, national central government with the States diminished to subservient status, or the States retaining primary authority, with a few powers delegated to the federal body (but which powers the sovereign States could choose to no longer delegate, through nullification or secession if the federal government abused such delegation). Madison and Hamilton were favoring the former nationalist vision, with weakened States.
Thankfully, they didn't get their way entirely, at the outset; but it didn't much matter, because they started working on nationalizing things anyway, even in the Washington administration, despite all the promises and assurances that Congress would never go beyond its Article I Section 8 list of enumerated powers, and despite the 10th Amendment.
Madison ended up following through with his promises that a Bill of Rights would be ratified, to his credit; and he ended up making good republican, pro-States arguments against Hamilton's bank and the Alien and Sedition Acts -- but he flip-flopped back and abandoned such principles in establishing the second bank.
He seemed to be kind of all over the map -- inconsistent. But I guess people change over time; so maybe that's it.
Just curious -- would you have rather that Madison's nationalist Virginia Plan been the Constitution than what we actually got? Are you glad the Virginia Plan was defeated?
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